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The effectiveness of anti-leakage policies in the European Union: results for Austria


  • Birgit Bednar-Friedl
  • Veronika Kulmer
  • Thomas Schinko



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Suggested Citation

  • Birgit Bednar-Friedl & Veronika Kulmer & Thomas Schinko, 2012. "The effectiveness of anti-leakage policies in the European Union: results for Austria," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(2), pages 233-260, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:empiri:v:39:y:2012:i:2:p:233-260 DOI: 10.1007/s10663-012-9186-7

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sergey V. Paltsev, 2001. "The Kyoto Protocol: Regional and Sectoral Contributions to the Carbon Leakage," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 53-80.
    2. Fæhn, Taran & Bruvoll, Annegrete, 2009. "Richer and cleaner--At others' expense?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 103-122, May.
    3. Bruno Lanz & Thomas F. Rutherford & John E. Tilton, 2013. "Subglobal Climate Agreements and Energy-intensive Activities: An Evaluation of Carbon Leakage in the Copper Industry," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 254-279, March.
    4. Ellerman,A. Denny & Convery,Frank J. & de Perthuis,Christian With contributions by-Name:Alberola,Emilie With contributions by-Name:Buchner,Barbara K. With contributions by-Name:Delbosc,Anaïs, 2010. "Pricing Carbon," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521196475, March.
    5. Rutherford, Thomas F, 1999. "Applied General Equilibrium Modeling with MPSGE as a GAMS Subsystem: An Overview of the Modeling Framework and Syntax," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 14(1-2), pages 1-46, October.
    6. Copeland, Brian R. & Taylor, M. Scott, 2005. "Free trade and global warming: a trade theory view of the Kyoto protocol," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 205-234, March.
    7. Damien Demailly & Philippe Quirion, 2008. "Concilier compétitivité industrielle et politique climatique. Faut-il distribuer les quotas de CO2 en fonction de la production ou bien les ajuster aux frontières ?," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 59(3), pages 497-504.
    8. McDougall, Robert & Aguiar, Angel, 2007. "Initial Preparation of Energy Volume Data for GTAP 7," GTAP Research Memoranda 2521, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
    9. Babiker, Mustafa H., 2005. "Climate change policy, market structure, and carbon leakage," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 421-445, March.
    10. Onno Kuik & Reyer Gerlagh, 2003. "Trade Liberalization and Carbon Leakage," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 97-120.
    11. Ferris, Michael C. & Munson, Todd S., 2000. "Complementarity problems in GAMS and the PATH solver," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 165-188, February.
    12. Mustafa H. Babiker & Thomas F. Rutherford, 2005. "The Economic Effects of Border Measures in Subglobal Climate Agreements," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 99-126.
    13. Stefan P. Schleicher & Claudia Kettner & Angela Köppl & Gregor Thenius, 2007. "Stringency and Distribution in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme –The 2005 Evidence," Working Papers 2007.22, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    14. Muñoz, Pablo & Steininger, Karl W., 2010. "Austria's CO2 responsibility and the carbon content of its international trade," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(10), pages 2003-2019, August.
    15. Alan Manne & Richard Richels, 1992. "Buying Greenhouse Insurance: The Economic Costs of CO2 Emission Limits," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026213280x, July.
    16. Ho, Mun S. & Morgenstern, Richard & Shih, Jhih-Shyang, 2008. "Impact of Carbon Price Policies on U.S. Industry," Discussion Papers dp-08-37, Resources For the Future.
    17. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10174 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. A. Ellerman & Barbara Buchner, 2008. "Over-Allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the EU ETS Based on the 2005–06 Emissions Data," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 41(2), pages 267-287, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Veronika Kulmer & Michael Kernitzkyi & Judith Köberl & Andreas Niederl, 2015. "Global Value Chains: Implications for the Austrian economy," FIW Research Reports series VI-003, FIW.
    2. Stefan Nabernegg & Birgit Bednar-Friedl & Fabian Wagner & Thomas Schinko & Janusz Cofala & Yadira Mori Clement, 2017. "The Deployment of Low Carbon Technologies in Energy Intensive Industries: A Macroeconomic Analysis for Europe, China and India," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-26, March.
    3. Schinko, Thomas & Bednar-Friedl, Birgit & Steininger, Karl W. & Grossmann, Wolf D., 2014. "Switching to carbon-free production processes: Implications for carbon leakage and border carbon adjustment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 818-831.
    4. Karl Steininger & Birgit Bednar-Friedl & Wolf Grossmann & Thomas Schinko, 2013. "The relevance of carbon free production processes for carbon leakage and carbon border adjustment," EcoMod2013 5482, EcoMod.
    5. Bednar-Friedl, Birgit & Schinko, Thomas & Steininger, Karl W., 2012. "The relevance of process emissions for carbon leakage: A comparison of unilateral climate policy options with and without border carbon adjustment," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 168-180.

    More about this item


    Emissions trading; International competitiveness; Carbon leakage; Anti-leakage policy; Grandfathering; Computable general equilibrium; Q54; Q56; H23; C68;

    JEL classification:

    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models


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