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Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Tourism-Based Leisure Farms in Taiwan


  • Kuo-Tsang Huang

    () (Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan)

  • Jen Chun Wang

    () (Department of Industry Technology Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, No.62 Shenjhong Rd., Yanchao District, Kaohsiung 82446, Taiwan)


This research is the first attempt of a carbon emission investigation of tourism-based farms. A total of 36 cases were investigated. The result reveals that each tourist returns an average revenue of 28.6 USD and generates an average 10.9 kg-CO 2 eq per visit of carbon emissions. The average carbon emission density for each land area is 8.2 t/ha·year and is 245 kg/m²·year for each floor area. It is estimated that the overall carbon emissions reach 321,751 tons annually. The tourism-based farms were clustered into five categories, based on their business characteristics. It was found that high-end vacation leisure farms produce 2.46 times the carbon emissions than natural eco-conservation farms. Carbon emissions were 42% higher than the annual average in July and August. A secondary high season is in February, but it is merely higher than the annual average by 8% because of the mild climate. Two significant models for predicting carbon emissions were constructed by stepwise regression. As agriculture administrative authorities in Taiwan gradually have begun admitting the cultivated lands for multi-purpose usage, tourism-based farms have been increasing drastically. This study provides references for both public authorities and farm managers in exploring the issues with regard to carbon emissions and farm sustainability.

Suggested Citation

  • Kuo-Tsang Huang & Jen Chun Wang, 2015. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Tourism-Based Leisure Farms in Taiwan," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(8), pages 1-18, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:7:y:2015:i:8:p:11032-11049:d:54079

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Gang Liu & Pengfei Shi & Feng Hai & Yi Zhang & Xingming Li, 2018. "Study on Measurement of Green Productivity of Tourism in the Yangtze River Economic Zone, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(8), pages 1-17, August.
    2. Haoyue Wu & Hanjiao Huang & Jin Tang & Wenkuan Chen & Yanqiu He, 2019. "Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture in China: Estimation, Spatial Correlation and Convergence," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(18), pages 1-19, September.

    More about this item


    tourism-based farms; energy consumption; carbon emission; low-carbon tourism; farm tourism;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products


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