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International tourism, energy consumption, and environmental pollution: The case of Turkey

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  • Katircioglu, Salih Turan

Abstract

This study investigates the long-run equilibrium relationship between tourism, energy consumption, and environmental degradation as proxied by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Turkey, which attracts more than 30 million tourists per year, making it the sixth most visited country in the world. The study results reveal that tourism and energy consumption are in a long-term equilibrium relationship with CO2 emissions; in the tourism-induced model, CO2 emissions converge to the long-term equilibrium path by a 91.01 percent speed of adjustment every year through the channels of tourism, energy consumption, and aggregate income. Further, the results of the impulse response and variance decompositions reveal that the reaction of energy consumption, and therefore CO2 emissions, to changes in tourism development is positive and gains strength in the longer periods. This implies that tourism development in Turkey has resulted not only in considerable increases in energy use but also considerable increases in climate change, as demonstrated by the econometric analysis of this study.

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  • Katircioglu, Salih Turan, 2014. "International tourism, energy consumption, and environmental pollution: The case of Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 180-187.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:36:y:2014:i:c:p:180-187
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.04.058
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    2. Yang, Jun & Ge, Yuting & Ge, Quansheng & Xi, Jianchao & Li, Xueming, 2016. "Determinants of island tourism development: The example of Dachangshan Island," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 261-271.
    3. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim & Apergis, Nicholas, 2014. "The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: The case of Tunisia," MPRA Paper 59827, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Katircioğlu, Salih Turan, 2014. "Testing the tourism-induced EKC hypothesis: The case of Singapore," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 383-391.
    5. Zhang, Lei & Gao, Jing, 2016. "Exploring the effects of international tourism on China's economic growth, energy consumption and environmental pollution: Evidence from a regional panel analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 225-234.
    6. Maria P. Pablo-Romero & Antonio Sánchez-Braza & Javier Sánchez-Rivas, 2017. "Relationships between Hotel and Restaurant Electricity Consumption and Tourism in 11 European Union Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(11), pages 1-14, November.
    7. Zhang, Shun & Liu, Xuyi, 2019. "The roles of international tourism and renewable energy in environment: New evidence from Asian countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 385-394.
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    14. Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Sato, João Ricardo, 2015. "On the relationships between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and income: The importance of time variation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 629-638.
    15. Can Tansel TUGCU & Mert TOPCU, 2018. "The impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on tourism: Does the source of emission matter?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(614), S), pages 125-136, Spring.
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    17. María del P. Pablo-Romero ,, & Rafael Pozo-Barajas & Javier Sánchez-Rivas, 2017. "Relationships between Tourism and Hospitality Sector Electricity Consumption in Spanish Provinces (1999–2013)," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(4), pages 1-12, March.

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