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Environmental and self-sufficiency assessment of the energy metabolism of tourist hubs on Mediterranean Islands: The case of Menorca (Spain)


  • Sanyé-Mengual, Esther
  • Romanos, Héctor
  • Molina, Catalina
  • Oliver, M. Antònia
  • Ruiz, Núria
  • Pérez, Marta
  • Carreras, David
  • Boada, Martí
  • Garcia-Orellana, Jordi
  • Duch, Jordi
  • Rieradevall, Joan


Energy performance of island tourism has been analyzed in the literature. However, tourist services tend to concentrate in tourist hubs, especially where mass tourism predominates (e.g., Mediterranean), and the energy metabolism of these systems has not yet been assessed. The present paper models and estimates the energy metabolism of tourist hubs in the Menorca Island (Spain) by integrating social, geographical and environmental methods. Mobility (both external and internal) and consumption of lodging services were characterized through surveys to users (tourists) and business managers. An environmental assessment evaluated CO2 emissions, and energy self-sufficiency potential was estimated via GIS data. The results indicate that, on average, a tourist consumes 4756MJ with associated emissions of 277kg of CO2 per stay (20 days on average). Of all the energy flows, external mobility contributes the most to total emissions (77%). For every day spent in a tourist hub, a tourist consumes between 29MJ and 93MJ in lodging services, consumption that could be 100% satisfied by photovoltaic systems, and these systems would result in positive effects for the island. Sustainable tourism management might focus on promoting environmentally friendly transportation, energy efficient practices, and environmental communication through ecolabeling.

Suggested Citation

  • Sanyé-Mengual, Esther & Romanos, Héctor & Molina, Catalina & Oliver, M. Antònia & Ruiz, Núria & Pérez, Marta & Carreras, David & Boada, Martí & Garcia-Orellana, Jordi & Duch, Jordi & Rieradevall, Joan, 2014. "Environmental and self-sufficiency assessment of the energy metabolism of tourist hubs on Mediterranean Islands: The case of Menorca (Spain)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 377-387.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:65:y:2014:i:c:p:377-387
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.011

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Francisco Javier Díaz Pérez & Ricardo Díaz Martín & Francisco Javier Pérez Trujillo & Moises Díaz & Adib Guardiola Mouhaffel, 2019. "Consumption and Emissions Analysis in Domestic Hot Water Hotels. Case Study: Canary Islands," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-17, January.
    2. Kuo-Tsang Huang & Jen Chun Wang, 2015. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Tourism-Based Leisure Farms in Taiwan," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(8), pages 1-18, August.
    3. Antonio Colmenar-Santos & Elisabet Palomo-Torrejón & Enrique Rosales-Asensio & David Borge-Diez, 2018. "Measures to Remove Geothermal Energy Barriers in the European Union," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(11), pages 1-29, November.
    4. Ginard-Bosch, Francisco Javier & Ramos-Martín, Jesús, 2016. "Energy metabolism of the Balearic Islands (1986–2012)," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 25-35.


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