IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Foreign Direct Investment in the Power and Energy Sector, Energy Consumption, and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan


  • Rashid Latief

    (College of Finance, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China)

  • Lin Lefen

    (College of Finance, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China)


Pakistan significantly contributes to the overall economy of South Asia, but, for many years, it has been facing a severe energy crisis. Despite the robust economic growth and a sharp increase in energy demand, no deliberate efforts have been made to meet the energy demand of the country. Similar to other developing countries, foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a key role in the economic development of this country. Pakistan receives FDI from many countries in various sectors of the economy. This paper aims to highlight the present situation of the power and energy sector of Pakistan (PESP), and empirically analyze the causality among the FDI in the power and energy sector, the energy consumption, and the economic growth of Pakistan for the period 1990–2017. The Johansen co-integration and Granger causality tests were employed to find the causal relationships among the variables of interest in the short-run and the long-run. The sector-wise flow of FDI reveals that the power and energy sector of Pakistan (PESP) has comparatively received a higher amount of FDI than other sectors of the economy in recent years. Furthermore, trends of energy production and energy usage reveal a substantial gap in previous years. The results confirm a positive bi-directional short-run causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The results also reveal the presence of long-run causality in the equation of energy consumption. Considering the current situation of PESP, policy-makers should formulate policies to attain the minimum debt level and discourage loan-based investment. Such policies would be helpful to control the severe energy crisis and increase economic growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Rashid Latief & Lin Lefen, 2019. "Foreign Direct Investment in the Power and Energy Sector, Energy Consumption, and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(1), pages 1-21, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:1:p:192-:d:194431

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hao, Yu & Wang, Ling'ou & Zhu, Lingyun & Ye, Minjie, 2018. "The dynamic relationship between energy consumption, investment and economic growth in China's rural area: New evidence based on provincial panel data," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 374-382.
    2. Chor Tang & Bee Tan, 2014. "The linkages among energy consumption, economic growth, relative price, foreign direct investment, and financial development in Malaysia," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 781-797, March.
    3. Balasubramanyam, V N & Salisu, M & Sapsford, David, 1996. "Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in EP and IS Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(434), pages 92-105, January.
    4. Zhang, Xing-Ping & Cheng, Xiao-Mei, 2009. "Energy consumption, carbon emissions, and economic growth in China," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(10), pages 2706-2712, August.
    5. Chandran Govindaraju, V.G.R. & Tang, Chor Foon, 2013. "The dynamic links between CO2 emissions, economic growth and coal consumption in China and India," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 310-318.
    6. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi, 2012. "Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 473-479.
    7. Paul, Shyamal & Bhattacharya, Rabindra N., 2004. "Causality between energy consumption and economic growth in India: a note on conflicting results," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 977-983, November.
    8. Belloumi, Mounir, 2014. "The relationship between trade, FDI and economic growth in Tunisia: An application of the autoregressive distributed lag model," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 269-287.
    9. Iamsiraroj, Sasi, 2016. "The foreign direct investment–economic growth nexus," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 116-133.
    10. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    11. Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2000. "The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 615-625, December.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Zeshan, Muhammad & Afza, Talat, 2012. "Is energy consumption effective to spur economic growth in Pakistan? New evidence from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2310-2319.
    13. Huang, Bwo-Nung & Hwang, M.J. & Yang, C.W., 2008. "Causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP growth revisited: A dynamic panel data approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 41-54, August.
    14. Dierk Herzer, 2012. "How Does Foreign Direct Investment Really Affect Developing Countries' Growth?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 396-414, May.
    15. Stoneman, Colin, 1975. "Foreign capital and economic growth," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 11-26, January.
    16. Erdal, Gülistan & Erdal, Hilmi & Esengün, Kemal, 2008. "The causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 3838-3842, October.
    17. Ewing, Bradley T. & Payne, James E. & Caporin, Massimilano, 2022. "The Asymmetric Impact of Oil Prices and Production on Drilling Rig Trajectory: A correction," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    18. Sang-Do Park, 2018. "The Nexus of FDI, R&D, and Human Capital on Chinese Sustainable Development: Evidence from a Two-Step Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(6), pages 1-23, June.
    19. Mah, Jai S., 2010. "Foreign direct investment inflows and economic growth of China," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 155-158, January.
    20. Syed Sajid Ali & Sadia Badar, 2010. "Dynamics of Circular Debt in Pakistan and Its Resolution," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 15(Special E), pages 61-74, September.
    21. Adams, Samuel, 2009. "Foreign Direct investment, domestic investment, and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 939-949, November.
    22. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping & Chen, Pei-Fen, 2008. "Energy-income causality in OECD countries revisited: The key role of capital stock," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2359-2373, September.
    23. Bornschier, Volker, 1980. "Multinational corporations and economic growth : A cross-national test of the decapitalization thesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 191-210, April.
    24. Yoo, S.-H., 2006. "The causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in the ASEAN countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3573-3582, December.
    25. Omri, Anis & Kahouli, Bassem, 2014. "Causal relationships between energy consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth: Fresh evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equations models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 913-922.
    26. Changwen Zhao & Jiang Du, 2007. "Causality Between FDI and Economic Growth in China," Chinese Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(6), pages 68-82, November.
    27. Priya Gupta & Archana Singh, 2016. "Causal nexus between foreign direct investment and economic growth," Journal of Advances in Management Research, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 13(2), pages 179-202, August.
    28. Rafique, M. Mujahid & Rehman, S., 2017. "National energy scenario of Pakistan – Current status, future alternatives, and institutional infrastructure: An overview," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 156-167.
    29. Gui-Diby, Steve Loris, 2014. "Impact of foreign direct investments on economic growth in Africa: Evidence from three decades of panel data analyses," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 248-256.
    30. Karanfil, Fatih, 2009. "How many times again will we examine the energy-income nexus using a limited range of traditional econometric tools?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1191-1194, April.
    31. Lise, Wietze & Van Montfort, Kees, 2007. "Energy consumption and GDP in Turkey: Is there a co[hyphen (true graphic)]integration relationship?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1166-1178, November.
    32. Khatun, Fahmida & Ahamad, Mazbahul, 2015. "Foreign direct investment in the energy and power sector in Bangladesh: Implications for economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 1369-1377.
    33. Komal, Rabia & Abbas, Faisal, 2015. "Linking financial development, economic growth and energy consumption in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 211-220.
    34. Khuda Bakhsh & Sobia Rose & Muhammad Faisal Ali & Najid Ahmad & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2017. "Economic growth, CO2 emissions, renewable waste and FDI relation in Pakistan: New evidences from 3SLS," Post-Print hal-02000433, HAL.
    35. Stern, David I., 1997. "Limits to substitution and irreversibility in production and consumption: A neoclassical interpretation of ecological economics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 197-215, June.
    36. Jai Sheen Mah, 2010. "Foreign Direct Investment Inflows and Economic Growth: The Case of Korea," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(4), pages 726-735, November.
    37. Mahmood, Anzar & Javaid, Nadeem & Zafar, Adnan & Ali Riaz, Raja & Ahmed, Saeed & Razzaq, Sohail, 2014. "Pakistan's overall energy potential assessment, comparison of LNG, TAPI and IPI gas projects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 182-193.
    38. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2007. "Energy consumption and GDP revisited: A panel analysis of developed and developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1206-1223, November.
    39. Masih, Abul M. M. & Masih, Rumi, 1996. "Energy consumption, real income and temporal causality: results from a multi-country study based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 165-183, July.
    40. Chakraborty, Chandana & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2008. "Economic Reforms, FDI, and Economic Growth in India: A Sector Level Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1192-1212, July.
    41. Anwar, Sajid & Sun, Sizhong, 2011. "Financial development, foreign investment and economic growth in Malaysia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 335-342, August.
    42. Bowden, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "The causal relationship between U.S. energy consumption and real output: A disaggregated analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 180-188.
    43. Rashid Latief & Lin Lefen, 2018. "The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Developing Countries along “One Belt and One Road”," IJFS, MDPI, vol. 6(4), pages 1-22, October.
    44. Belloumi, Mounir, 2009. "Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia: Cointegration and causality analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2745-2753, July.
    45. Oh, Wankeun & Lee, Kihoon, 2004. "Causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP revisited: the case of Korea 1970-1999," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 51-59, January.
    46. Alshehry, Atef Saad & Belloumi, Mounir, 2015. "Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 237-247.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Aleksandra G. Polyakova & Seeram A. Ramakrishna & Vladimir V. Kolmakov & Dmitry V. Zavyalov, 2019. "A Model of Fuel and Energy Sector Contribution to Economic Growth," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(5), pages 25-31.
    2. Maolin Cheng & Bin Liu, 2019. "Analysis on the Influence of China’s Energy Consumption on Economic Growth," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(14), pages 1-25, July.
    3. Abdul Rehman & Hengyun Ma & Magdalena Radulescu & Crenguta Ileana Sinisi & Zahid Yousaf, 2021. "Energy Crisis in Pakistan and Economic Progress: Decoupling the Impact of Coal Energy Consumption in Power and Brick Kilns," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 9(17), pages 1-15, August.
    4. Sulman Shahzad & Muhammad Abbas Abbasi & Hassan Ali & Muhammad Iqbal & Rania Munir & Heybet Kilic, 2023. "Possibilities, Challenges, and Future Opportunities of Microgrids: A Review," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(8), pages 1-28, April.
    5. Ioannis Dokas & Minas Panagiotidis & Stephanos Papadamou & Eleftherios Spyromitros, 2022. "The Determinants of Energy and Electricity Consumption in Developed and Developing Countries: International Evidence," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(7), pages 1-30, March.
    6. Shakeel Ahmad & Muhammad Tariq & Touseef Hussain & Qasir Abbas & Hamidullah Elham & Iqbal Haider & Xiangmei Li, 2020. "Does Chinese FDI, Climate Change, and CO 2 Emissions Stimulate Agricultural Productivity? An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(18), pages 1-20, September.
    7. Ramchandra Bhandari & Benjamin Eduardo Arce & Vittorio Sessa & Rabani Adamou, 2021. "Sustainability Assessment of Electricity Generation in Niger Using a Weighted Multi-Criteria Decision Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(1), pages 1-25, January.
    8. Konstantinos Bletsas & Georgios Oikonomou & Minas Panagiotidis & Eleftherios Spyromitros, 2022. "Carbon Dioxide and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Role of Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy, and Institutional Quality," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(13), pages 1-24, June.
    9. Abdul Rehman & Rasim Ozcan & Waqar Badshah & Magdalena Radulescu & Ilhan Ozturk, 2021. "Symmetric and Asymmetric Impacts of Commercial Energy Distribution from Key Sources on Economic Progress in Pakistan," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(22), pages 1-22, November.
    10. Rashid Latief & Yusheng Kong & Sohail Ahmad Javeed & Usman Sattar, 2021. "Carbon Emissions in the SAARC Countries with Causal Effects of FDI, Economic Growth and Other Economic Factors: Evidence from Dynamic Simultaneous Equation Models," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(9), pages 1-22, April.
    11. Fasih Ahmed & Muhammad Nawaz & Aisha Jadoon, 2022. "Topic Modeling of the Pakistani Economy in English Newspapers via Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)," SAGE Open, , vol. 12(1), pages 21582440221, March.
    12. Shaolong Zeng & Yiqun Liu & Junjie Ding & Danlu Xu, 2020. "An Empirical Analysis of Energy Consumption, FDI and High Quality Development Based on Time Series Data of Zhejiang Province," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(9), pages 1-17, May.
    13. José A. G. Cararo & João Caetano Neto & Wagner A. Vilela Júnior & Márcio R. C. Reis & Gabriel A. Wainer & Paulo V. dos Santos & Wesley P. Calixto, 2021. "Spatial Model of Optimization Applied in the Distributed Generation Photovoltaic to Adjust Voltage Levels," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(22), pages 1-37, November.
    14. Ahmad Saad & Guan Xinping & Mariah Ijaz, 2019. "China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and Its Influence on Perceived Economic and Social Goals: Implications for Social Policy Makers," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(18), pages 1-20, September.
    15. Jozef R. Pattiruhu & Shella Kriekhoff, 2022. "Energy Consumption Impact on Economic Management: Evidence from Indonesian Economy," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 12(3), pages 270-279, May.
    16. Raad Al-Tal & Muntasir Murshed & Paiman Ahmad & Abdelrahman J. K. Alfar & Mohga Bassim & Mohamed Elheddad & Mira Nurmakhanova & Haider Mahmood, 2021. "The Non-Linear Effects of Energy Efficiency Gains on the Incidence of Energy Poverty," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(19), pages 1-20, October.
    17. Ali Çelik, 2023. "Testing Linear and Nonlinear Relationships Between Foreign Direct Investment and Fossil Energy Consumption in Fragile Five Countries," EKOIST Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 0(38), pages 1-77, June.
    18. Abbas Ali Chandio & Yuansheng Jiang & Jam Ghulam Murtaza Sahito & Fayyaz Ahmad, 2019. "Empirical Insights into the Long-Run Linkage between Households Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Macro-Level Empirical Evidence from Pakistan," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(22), pages 1-17, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "A literature survey on energy-growth nexus," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 340-349, January.
    2. Sofien, Tiba & Omri, Anis, 2016. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy variables, environment and economic growth," MPRA Paper 82555, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Sep 2016.
    3. Farzana Sharmin & Mohammed Robayet Khan & Mohammed Robayet Khan, 2016. "A Causal Relationship between Energy Consumption, Energy Prices and Economic Growth in Africa," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(3), pages 477-494.
    4. Chang, Ching-Chih & Soruco Carballo, Claudia Fabiola, 2011. "Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 4215-4221, July.
    5. Magazzino, Cosimo, 2011. "Energy consumption and aggregate income in Italy: cointegration and causality analysis," MPRA Paper 28494, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Cosimo Magazzino, 2015. "Energy consumption and GDP in Italy: cointegration and causality analysis," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 137-153, February.
    7. Araç, Ayşen & Hasanov, Mübariz, 2014. "Asymmetries in the dynamic interrelationship between energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 259-269.
    8. Omri, Anis, 2014. "An international literature survey on energy-economic growth nexus: Evidence from country-specific studies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 951-959.
    9. Pradhan, Rudra P. & Arvin, Mak B. & Nair, Mahendhiran & Bennett, Sara E. & Hall, John H., 2018. "The dynamics between energy consumption patterns, financial sector development and economic growth in Financial Action Task Force (FATF) countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 42-53.
    10. Shahateet, Mohammed Issa & Al-Majali, Khalid Ali & Al-Hahabashneh, Fedel, 2014. "Causality and Cointegration between Economic Growth and Energy Consumption: Econometric Evidence from Jordan," MPRA Paper 59067, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2014.
    11. Tiba, Sofien & Omri, Anis, 2017. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy, environment and economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1129-1146.
    12. Amri, Fethi, 2016. "The relationship amongst energy consumption, foreign direct investment and output in developed and developing Countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 694-702.
    13. Dergiades, Theologos & Martinopoulos, Georgios & Tsoulfidis, Lefteris, 2013. "Energy consumption and economic growth: Parametric and non-parametric causality testing for the case of Greece," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 686-697.
    14. Yıldırım, Ertugrul & Sukruoglu, Deniz & Aslan, Alper, 2014. "Energy consumption and economic growth in the next 11 countries: The bootstrapped autoregressive metric causality approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 14-21.
    15. Islam, Faridul & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ahmed, Ashraf U. & Alam, Md. Mahmudul, 2013. "Financial development and energy consumption nexus in Malaysia: A multivariate time series analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 435-441.
    16. Saboori, Behnaz & Sulaiman, Jamalludin, 2013. "Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 892-905.
    17. Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser & Uddin, Gazi Salah, 2012. "Is the causal nexus of energy utilization and economic growth asymmetric in the US?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 461-469.
    18. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Abosedra, Salah & Sbia, Rashid, 2013. "Energy Consumption, Financial Development and Growth: Evidence from Cointegration with unknown Structural breaks in Lebanon," MPRA Paper 46580, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Roubaud, David & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2018. "Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Electricity Demand: A Sector Analysis of an Emerging Economy," MPRA Paper 87212, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 06 Jun 2018.
    20. Ahmad, Nisar & Aghdam, Reza FathollahZadeh & Butt, Irfan & Naveed, Amjad, 2020. "Citation-based systematic literature review of energy-growth nexus: An overview of the field and content analysis of the top 50 influential papers," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:1:p:192-:d:194431. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.