IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/wdevel/v70y2015icp303-316.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Impact of Bolsa Família on Schooling

Author

Listed:
  • de Brauw, Alan
  • Gilligan, Daniel O.
  • Hoddinott, John
  • Roy, Shalini

Abstract

We use longitudinal household data and propensity score weighting methods to assess the impact of Brazil’s Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer program on schooling outcomes of children aged 6–17years. Weak aggregate effects mask considerable heterogeneity. Among girls, the program significantly increases school participation (by 8 percentage points) and grade progression (by 10 percentage points), with large, significant effects across both younger and older girls in rural areas but concentrated among girls aged 15–17years in urban areas. Few significant impacts are found among boys. We discuss implications and potential mechanisms for differential impacts by sex, age, and location.

Suggested Citation

  • de Brauw, Alan & Gilligan, Daniel O. & Hoddinott, John & Roy, Shalini, 2015. "The Impact of Bolsa Família on Schooling," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 303-316.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:70:y:2015:i:c:p:303-316
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.02.001
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X1500025X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.02.001?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Glewwe, Paul & Kassouf, Ana Lucia, 2012. "The impact of the Bolsa Escola/Familia conditional cash transfer program on enrollment, dropout rates and grade promotion in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 505-517.
    2. John Fitzgerald & Peter Gottschalk & Robert Moffitt, 1998. "An Analysis of Sample Attrition in Panel Data: The Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(2), pages 251-299.
    3. de Brauw, Alan & Gilligan, Daniel O. & Hoddinott, John & Roy, Shalini, 2014. "The Impact of Bolsa Família on Women’s Decision-Making Power," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 487-504.
    4. Keisuke Hirano & Guido W. Imbens & Geert Ridder, 2003. "Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Using the Estimated Propensity Score," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(4), pages 1161-1189, July.
    5. Subha Mani & John Hoddinott & John Strauss, 2009. "Determinants of Schooling Outcomes: Empirical Evidence from Rural Ethiopia," Fordham Economics Discussion Paper Series dp2009-03, Fordham University, Department of Economics.
    6. John Fitzgerald & Peter Gottschalk & Robert Moffitt, 1998. "An Analysis of the Impact of Sample Attrition on the Second Generation of Respondents in the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(2), pages 300-344.
    7. Ariel Fiszbein & Norbert Schady & Francisco H.G. Ferreira & Margaret Grosh & Niall Keleher & Pedro Olinto & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2009. "Conditional Cash Transfers : Reducing Present and Future Poverty," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 2597.
    8. Suzanne Duryea & Sebastian Galiani & Hugo Ñopo & Claudia Piras, 2007. "The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean," Research Department Publications 4510, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    9. Suzanne Duryea & Sebastian Galiani & Hugo Ñopo & Claudia Piras, 2007. "The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean," Research Department Publications 4510, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    10. Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
    11. Behrman, Jere R & Knowles, James C, 1999. "Household Income and Child Schooling in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 211-256, May.
    12. World Bank, 2013. "World Development Indicators 2013," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 13191.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Campoli, Jessica Suárez & Alves Júnior, Paulo Nocera & Rossato, Fabrícia Gladys Fernandes da Silva & Rebelatto, Daisy Aparecida do Nascimento, 2020. "The efficiency of Bolsa Familia Program to advance toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): A human development indicator to Brazil," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 71(C).
    2. Nishijima, Marislei & Sarti, Flavia Mori & Canuto, Otaviano, 2020. "Does the Brazilian policy for oil revenues distribution foster investment in human capital?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    3. Malerba, Daniele, 2020. "Poverty alleviation and local environmental degradation: An empirical analysis in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    4. Zhou, Lei & Jiang, Bo & Wang, Jingxi, 2020. "Do cash transfers have impacts on student Academic, cognitive, and enrollment outcomes? Evidence from rural China," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 116(C).
    5. Costa, Lorena Vieira & Helfand, Steven M. & Souza, André Portela Fernandes de, 2018. "No impact of rural development policies?: no synergies with conditional cash transfers?: an investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil," Textos para discussão 489, FGV EESP - Escola de Economia de São Paulo, Fundação Getulio Vargas (Brazil).
    6. Wang, Yiru, 2018. "Educational and nutritional consequences of education subsidy in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 167-180.
    7. Khiem, Phuong Huu & Linh, Dinh Hong & Tai, Do Anh & Dung, Nguyen Dac, 2020. "Does tuition fee policy reform encourage poor children’s school enrolment? Evidence from Vietnam," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 109-124.
    8. Bui, Tuan Anh & Nguyen, Cuong Viet & Nguyen, Khuong Duc & Nguyen, Ha Hong & Pham, Phuong Thu, 2020. "The effect of tuition fee reduction and education subsidy on school enrollment: Evidence from Vietnam," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 108(C).
    9. Morton, Gregory Duff, 2019. "The power of lump sums: Using maternity payment schedules to reduce the gender asset gap in households reached by Brazil’s Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 352-367.
    10. Meskoub, M., 2015. "Cash transfer as a social policy instrument or a tool of adjustment policy: from indirect subsidies (to energy and utilities) to cash subsidies in Iran, 2010-2014," ISS Working Papers - General Series 610, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    11. Hidayatina, Achsanah & Garces-Ozanne, Arlene, 2019. "Can cash transfers mitigate child labour? Evidence from Indonesia’s cash transfer programme for poor students in Java," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 1-1.
    12. Servaas van der Berg & Gabrielle Wills & Rebecca Selkirk & Charles Adams & Chris van Wyk, 2019. "The cost of repetition in South Africa," Working Papers 13/2019, Stellenbosch University, Department of Economics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. de Brauw, Alan & Gilligan, Daniel O. & Hoddinott, John & Roy, Shalini, 2014. "The Impact of Bolsa Família on Women’s Decision-Making Power," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 487-504.
    2. de Brauw, Alan & Gilligan, Daniel O. & Hoddinott, John F. & Roy, Shalini, 2014. "The impact of Bolsa Família on schooling: Girls’ advantage increases and older children gain:," IFPRI discussion papers 1319, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Bergolo, Marcelo & Galván, Estefanía, 2018. "Intra-household Behavioral Responses to Cash Transfer Programs. Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 100-118.
    4. Guido W. Imbens & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2009. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(1), pages 5-86, March.
    5. Emla Fitzsimons & Bansi Malde, 2014. "Empirically probing the quantity–quality model," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(1), pages 33-68, January.
    6. Richard Akresh & Damien de Walque & Harounan Kazianga, 2013. "Cash Transfers and Child Schooling: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation of the Role of Conditionality," Economics Working Paper Series 1301, Oklahoma State University, Department of Economics and Legal Studies in Business.
    7. Eric V. Edmonds & Norbert Schady, 2012. "Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 100-124, November.
    8. Pierre-Richard AGENOR & Otaviano CANUTO, 2012. "Access to Infrastructure and Women’s Time Allocation: Evidence and a Framework for Policy Analysis," Working Papers P45, FERDI.
    9. Nong, Huifu & Zhang, Qing & Zhu, Hongjia & Zhu, Rong, 2021. "Targeted Poverty Alleviation and Children's Academic Performance in China," IZA Discussion Papers 14674, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Joshi, Shareen & Sivaram, Anusuya, 2014. "Does it Pay to Deliver? An Evaluation of India’s Safe Motherhood Program," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 434-447.
    11. Independent Evaluation Group, 2014. "Social Safety Nets and Gender : Learning from Impact Evaluations and World Bank Projects," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 21365.
    12. Emanuela di Gropello, 2006. "Meeting the Challenges of Secondary Education in Latin America and East Asia : Improving Efficiency and Resource Mobilization," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 7173.
    13. Malerba, Daniele, 2020. "Poverty alleviation and local environmental degradation: An empirical analysis in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    14. Jacobus de Hoop & Furio C. Rosati, 2014. "Cash Transfers and Child Labor," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 29(2), pages 202-234.
    15. Tyler Morin & Mark Partridge, 2021. "The Impact of Small Regional Economic Development Commissions: Is There Any Bang After Just a Few Bucks?," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 35(1), pages 22-39, February.
    16. Marina Bassi & Matías Busso & Sergio Urzúa & Jaime Vargas, 2012. "Disconnected: Skills, Education, and Employment in Latin America," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 79504, February.
    17. M. Caridad Araujo & Mariano Bosch & Norbert Schady, 2017. "Can Cash Transfers Help Households Escape an Intergenerational Poverty Trap?," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Poverty Traps, pages 357-382, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Dirk Van de gaer & Joost Vandenbossche & José Luis Figueroa, 2014. "Children's Health Opportunities and Project Evaluation: Mexico's Oportunidades Program," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 28(2), pages 282-310.
    19. Karthik Muralidharan & Nishith Prakash, 2017. "Cycling to School: Increasing Secondary School Enrollment for Girls in India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 321-350, July.
    20. Costa, Lorena Vieira & Helfand, Steven M. & Souza, André Portela Fernandes de, 2018. "No impact of rural development policies?: no synergies with conditional cash transfers?: an investigation of the IFAD-Supported Gavião Project in Brazil," Textos para discussão 489, FGV EESP - Escola de Economia de São Paulo, Fundação Getulio Vargas (Brazil).

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:70:y:2015:i:c:p:303-316. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.