Women’s Entry into Self-employment in Urban China: The Role of Family in Creating Gendered Mobility Patterns
How did family characteristics affect women and men differently in self-employment participation in urban China? Analyses of national data show dual marriage penalties for women. Marketization made married women more vulnerable to lay-offs from state-sector jobs; their likelihood of being pushed into unskilled self-employment surpassed that of any other groups. The revitalized patriarchal family tradition favored men in family businesses and resulted in their higher rates of entering entrepreneurial self-employment. Married women who had the education to pursue entrepreneurial self-employment were constrained by family responsibilities to state-sector jobs for access to family services, and had much lower rates in entering self-employment.
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- Devine, Theresa J, 1994. "Changes in Wage-and-Salary Returns to Skill and the Recent Rise in Female Self-Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 108-13, May.
- Xiaoling Shu & Yifei Zhu & Zhanxin Zhang, 2007. "Global Economy and Gender Inequalities: The Case of the Urban Chinese Labor Market," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1307-1332.
- Xiaoling Shu, 2005. "Market Transition and Gender Segregation in Urban China," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 86(s1), pages 1299-1323.
- Allen, W. David, 2000. "Social networks and self-employment," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 487-501.
- Fenglian Du & Xiao-yuan Dong, 2009. "Why do women have longer durations of unemployment than men in post-restructuring urban China?," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(2), pages 233-252, March.
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