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Distortions in world food markets in the wake of GATT: Evidence and policy implications


  • Valdes, Alberto
  • Zietz, Joachim


Ahead of the Uruguay Round accord of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in December of 1993, numerous developing countries, especially in Latin America, embarked on a process of unilateral trade liberalization. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, bound tariffs were instituted, export taxes removed, and quantitative restrictions replaced with tariffs. Although the principle of tariffication is now widely accepted, many policymakers in these countries are exploring temporary import restrictions in agriculture with the argument that this sector is a special case because of the major distortions in world food prices. Protection is considered in the form of additional tariff protection on importables, such as cereals in the case of Colombia and Chile. In some cases, pressure exists to revert to levels of protection in effect prior to trade policy reforms. The demand for protection has arisen as a result of a decline in internal real farm prices over the last few years. This decline can be traced mainly to two circumstances: an appreciation of the real exchange rate following a surge in net capital inflows and a global decline in world prices (Valdés 1993). Only the exchange rate appreciation can be related to a country's ongoing policy reforms. The decline in world food prices, by contrast, is part of a persistent secular trend toward lower real prices. Advocates of agricultural protection in Latin American countries, however, argue that the current decline in world food prices is mainly the result of protectionist policies of industrialized countries. Local farmers cannot be left alone to compete against the treasuries of rich industrial nations; they must be protected from artificially low world prices. This argument for protection receives its economic logic from the widespread belief among policymakers that world prices will turn sharply upware once the Uruguay Round accord (December 1993) of the GATT is fully implemented. The GATT accord will compe
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  • Valdes, Alberto & Zietz, Joachim, 1995. "Distortions in world food markets in the wake of GATT: Evidence and policy implications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 913-926, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:23:y:1995:i:6:p:913-926

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Richard E. Just, 1974. "An Investigation of the Importance of Risk in Farmers' Decisions," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 56(1), pages 14-25.
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    Cited by:

    1. Servaas Storm & J. Mohan Rao, 2002. "Agricultural Globalization in Developing Countries: Rules, Rationales and Results," Working Papers wp71, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    2. Hans Binswanger & Ernst Lutz, 2003. "Agricultural trade barriers, trade negotiations and the interests of developing countries," Chapters, in: John Toye (ed.), Trade and Development, chapter 8, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Safadi, Raed & Laird, Sam, 1996. "The Uruguay Round agreements: Impact on developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1223-1242, July.
    4. Pursell, Garry*Gupta, Anju, 1998. "Trade policies and incentives in Indian agriculture : methodology, background statistics, and protection and incentive indicators, 1965-95," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1953, The World Bank.
    5. Valdes, Alberto & McCalla, Alex F., 1996. "The Uruguay round and agricultural policies in developing countries and economies in transition," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(4-5), pages 419-431.
    6. Storm, Servaas, 1997. "Agriculture under trade policy reform: A quantitative assessment for India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 425-436, March.

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