IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

An examination of non-government-assisted US commercial bank mergers during the financial crisis

Listed author(s):
  • Dunn, Jessica Kay
  • Intintoli, Vincent J.
  • McNutt, Jamie John
Registered author(s):

    In this study, we examine non-government-assisted US commercial bank merger activity prior to and during the recent financial crisis. Mergers that occur throughout the crisis appear to be more significant events for both targets and acquirers. Acquirers seek out relatively larger targets during the crisis and offer premiums are higher than pre-crisis values. Valuation discrepancies between targets and acquirers are also greater for crisis period mergers, suggesting that merger gains outweigh presumably high capital reallocation costs. Acquirers have lower capital ratios than their peers during the crisis, indicating that they may use mergers defensively as recapitalization events. However, crisis period mergers do not appear to be motivated by asset-based liquidity concerns for either the target or acquirer. Examining how firm characteristics relate to value creation, we find targets that are undervalued relative to their acquirers see larger offer premiums during the crisis, but not before. Targets with poorer-performing loan portfolios, however, observe lower offer premiums during the crisis. Lastly, we find overall merger announcement value creation during the financial crisis is greater when targets have higher quality assets, are better capitalized, and are less efficient.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148619514000551
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economics and Business.

    Volume (Year): 77 (2015)
    Issue (Month): C ()
    Pages: 16-41

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:jebusi:v:77:y:2015:i:c:p:16-41
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jeconbus.2014.09.002
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconbus

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as
    in new window


    1. Hernando, Ignacio & Nieto, Mara J. & Wall, Larry D., 2009. "Determinants of domestic and cross-border bank acquisitions in the European Union," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1022-1032, June.
    2. Scholes, Myron & Williams, Joseph, 1977. "Estimating betas from nonsynchronous data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-327, December.
    3. Madura, Jeff & Wiant, Kenneth J., 1994. "Long-term valuation effects of bank acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1135-1154, December.
    4. Mitchell, Mark L. & Mulherin, J. Harold, 1996. "The impact of industry shocks on takeover and restructuring activity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 193-229, June.
    5. Timothy H. Hannan & Steven J. Pilloff, 2009. "Acquisition Targets and Motives in the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(6), pages 1167-1187, September.
    6. Michael C. Jensen, 2010. "The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 22(1), pages 43-58.
    7. Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger & Stulz, René M., 2011. "Bank CEO incentives and the credit crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 11-26, January.
    8. Thomas B. King & Daniel A. Nuxoll & Timothy J. Yeager, 2006. "Are the causes of bank distress changing? can researchers keep up?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 57-80.
    9. Rebel Cole & Lawrence White, 2012. "Déjà Vu All Over Again: The Causes of U.S. Commercial Bank Failures This Time Around," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 42(1), pages 5-29, October.
    10. Sara B. Moeller & Frederik P. Schlingemann & René M. Stulz, 2005. "Wealth Destruction on a Massive Scale? A Study of Acquiring-Firm Returns in the Recent Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 757-782, April.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
    12. Peristiani, Stavros, 1997. "Do Mergers Improve the X-Efficiency and Scale Efficiency of U.S. Banks? Evidence from the 1980s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 326-337, August.
    13. Steven N. Kaplan, 2000. "Introduction to "Mergers and Productivity"," NBER Chapters,in: Mergers and Productivity, pages 1-8 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 2003. "Stock market driven acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 295-311, December.
    15. Acharya, Viral V & Mora, Nada, 2011. "Are Banks Passive Liquidity Backstops? Deposit Rates and Flows during the 2007-2009 Crisis," CEPR Discussion Papers 8706, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Fatima Alali & Silvia Romero, 2013. "Characteristics of failed U.S. commercial banks: an exploratory study," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 53(4), pages 1149-1174, December.
    17. Mulherin, J. Harold & Boone, Audra L., 2000. "Comparing acquisitions and divestitures," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 117-139, July.
    18. Avkiran, Necmi Kemal, 1999. "The evidence on efficiency gains: The role of mergers and the benefits to the public," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 991-1013, July.
    19. Richard S. BARR & Lawrence M. SEIFORD & Thomas F. SIEMS, 1994. "Forecasting Bank Failure : A Non-Parametric Frontier Estimation Approach," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) 1994041, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    20. Michael Gort, 1969. "An Economic Disturbance Theory of Mergers," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 83(4), pages 624-642.
    21. Palia, Darius, 1993. "The Managerial, Regulatory, and Financial Determinants of Bank Merger Premiums," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(1), pages 91-102, March.
    22. Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
    23. Robert DeYoung & Douglas Evanoff & Philip Molyneux, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions of Financial Institutions: A Review of the Post-2000 Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 87-110, December.
    24. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    25. Loughran, Tim & Vijh, Anand M, 1997. " Do Long-Term Shareholders Benefit from Corporate Acquisitions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1765-1790, December.
    26. Mark Carlson, 2010. "Alternatives for Distressed Banks during the Great Depression," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(2-3), pages 421-441, March.
    27. Houston, Joel F. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 1994. "The overall gains from large bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1155-1176, December.
    28. Cornett, Marcia Millon & McNutt, Jamie John & Tehranian, Hassan, 2006. "Performance Changes around Bank Mergers: Revenue Enhancements versus Cost Reductions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(4), pages 1013-1050, June.
    29. Aggarwal, Raj & Jacques, Kevin T., 2001. "The impact of FDICIA and prompt corrective action on bank capital and risk: Estimates using a simultaneous equations model," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1139-1160, June.
    30. Eckbo, B. Espen, 2009. "Bidding strategies and takeover premiums: A review," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 149-178, February.
    31. Cornett, Marcia Millon & Hovakimian, Gayane & Palia, Darius & Tehranian, Hassan, 2003. "The impact of the manager-shareholder conflict on acquiring bank returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 103-131, January.
    32. Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
    33. Robert M. Adams, 2012. "Consolidation and merger activity in the United States banking industry from 2000 through 2010," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-51, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    34. anonymous, 2000. "Fed introduces nationally standardized check services," Financial Update, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Jul, pages 1-4.
    35. Aebi, Vincent & Sabato, Gabriele & Schmid, Markus, 2012. "Risk management, corporate governance, and bank performance in the financial crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3213-3226.
    36. West, Robert Craig, 1985. "A factor-analytic approach to bank condition," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 253-266, June.
    37. Beltratti, Andrea & Stulz, René M., 2012. "The credit crisis around the globe: Why did some banks perform better?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 1-17.
    38. Gasbarro, Dominic & Sadguna, I Gde Made & Zumwalt, J Kenton, 2002. "The Changing Relationship Between CAMEL Ratings and Bank Soundness during the Indonesian Banking Crisis," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 247-260, November.
    39. Harford, Jarrad, 2005. "What drives merger waves?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 529-560, September.
    40. Cheng, David C & Gup, Benton E & Wall, Larry D, 1989. "Financial Determinants of Bank Takeovers: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 21(4), pages 524-536, November.
    41. Eisfeldt, Andrea L. & Rampini, Adriano A., 2006. "Capital reallocation and liquidity," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 369-399, April.
    42. Amihud, Yakov & DeLong, Gayle L. & Saunders, Anthony, 2002. "The effects of cross-border bank mergers on bank risk and value," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 857-877, November.
    43. Boyan Jovanovic & Peter L. Rousseau, 2002. "The Q-Theory of Mergers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 198-204, May.
    44. Cornett, Marcia Millon & McNutt, Jamie John & Strahan, Philip E. & Tehranian, Hassan, 2011. "Liquidity risk management and credit supply in the financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 297-312, August.
    45. Ralph L. Nelson, 1959. "Merger Movements in American Industry, 1895-1956," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number nels59-1, November.
    46. Gayle L. DeLong, 2003. "Does Long-Term Performance of Mergers Match Market Expectations? Evidence from the US Banking Industry," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(2), Summer.
    47. Matthew Rhodes-Kropf & S. Viswanathan, 2004. "Market Valuation and Merger Waves," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(6), pages 2685-2718, December.
    48. Kathleen Fuller & Jeffry Netter & Mike Stegemoller, 2002. "What Do Returns to Acquiring Firms Tell Us? Evidence from Firms That Make Many Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1763-1793, August.
    49. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung, "undated". "Problem Loans and Cost Efficiency in Commercial Banks," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-08, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    50. Agrawal, Anup & Jaffe, Jeffrey F & Mandelker, Gershon N, 1992. " The Post-merger Performance of Acquiring Firms: A Re-examination of an Anomaly," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1605-1621, September.
    51. Robert R. Moore, 1997. "Bank acquisition determinants: implications for small business credit," Financial Industry Studies Working Paper 97-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    52. Pilloff, Steven J, 1996. "Performance Changes and Shareholder Wealth Creation Associated with Mergers of Publicly Traded Banking Institutions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 294-310, August.
    53. Raghavendra Rau, P. & Vermaelen, Theo, 1998. "Glamour, value and the post-acquisition performance of acquiring firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 223-253, August.
    54. Andrade, Gregor & Stafford, Erik, 2004. "Investigating the economic role of mergers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 1-36, January.
    55. R. Alton Gilbert & Andrew P. Meyer & Mark D. Vaughan, 1999. "The role of supervisory screens and econometric models in off-site surveillance," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 31-56.
    56. David C. Wheelock, 2011. "Banking industry consolidation and market structure: impact of the financial crisis and recession," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 419-438.
    57. Craig P. Aubuchon & David C. Wheelock, 2010. "The geographic distribution and characteristics of U.S. bank failures, 2007-2010: do bank failures still reflect local economic conditions?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 395-415.
    58. repec:hrv:faseco:30748164 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jebusi:v:77:y:2015:i:c:p:16-41. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.