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The geographic distribution and characteristics of U.S. bank failures, 2007-2010: do bank failures still reflect local economic conditions?

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  • Craig P. Aubuchon
  • David C. Wheelock

Abstract

The financial crisis and recession that began in 2007 brought a sharp increase in the number of bank failures in the United States. This article investigates characteristics of banks that failed and regional patterns in bank failure rates during 2007-10. The article compares the recent experience with that of 1987-92, when the United States last experienced a high number of bank failures. As during the 1987-92 and prior episodes, bank failures during 2007-10 were concentrated in regions of the country that experienced the most serious distress in real estate markets and the largest declines in economic activity. Although most legal restrictions on branch banking were eliminated in the 1990s, the authors find that many banks continue to operate in a small number of markets and are vulnerable to localized economic shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Craig P. Aubuchon & David C. Wheelock, 2010. "The geographic distribution and characteristics of U.S. bank failures, 2007-2010: do bank failures still reflect local economic conditions?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 395-415.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:2010:i:sep:p:395-415:n:v.92no.5
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    Cited by:

    1. Ghosh, Amit, 2017. "Do bank failures still matter in affecting regional economic activity?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 1-16.
    2. Silvio Contessi & Johanna L. Francis, 2011. "TARP beneficiaries and their lending patterns during the financial crisis," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 105-126.
    3. Carlson, Mark & Shan, Hui & Warusawitharana, Missaka, 2013. "Capital ratios and bank lending: A matched bank approach," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 663-687.
    4. Chang, Su-Hsin & Contessi, Silvio & Francis, Johanna L., 2014. "Understanding the accumulation of bank and thrift reserves during the U.S. financial crisis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 78-106.
    5. Mare, Davide Salvatore, 2015. "Contribution of macroeconomic factors to the prediction of small bank failures," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 25-39.
    6. David C. Wheelock, 2011. "Have acquisitions of failed banks increased the concentration of U.S. banking markets?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 155-168.
    7. Bessler, Wolfgang & Kurmann, Philipp & Nohel, Tom, 2015. "Time-varying systematic and idiosyncratic risk exposures of US bank holding companies," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 45-68.
    8. Maghyereh, Aktham I. & Awartani, Basel, 2014. "Bank distress prediction: Empirical evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 126-147.
    9. Cleary, Sean & Hebb, Greg, 2016. "An efficient and functional model for predicting bank distress: In and out of sample evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 101-111.
    10. Imbierowicz, Björn & Rauch, Christian, 2014. "The relationship between liquidity risk and credit risk in banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 242-256.
    11. Chen, Hsiao-Jung & Lin, Kuan-Ting, 2016. "How do banks make the trade-offs among risks? The role of corporate governance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 39-69.
    12. Dunn, Jessica Kay & Intintoli, Vincent J. & McNutt, Jamie John, 2015. "An examination of non-government-assisted US commercial bank mergers during the financial crisis," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 16-41.
    13. William Bassett & Selva Demiralp & Nathan Lloyd, 2016. "Government Support of Banks and Bank Lending," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1611, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.

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    Keywords

    Bank failures;

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