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Domestic content in China’s exports and its distribution by firm ownership

Author

Listed:
  • Ma, Hong
  • Wang, Zhi
  • Zhu, Kunfu

Abstract

Processing trade and foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) account for a large share of total Chinese exports. In producing exports, they also use imported inputs disproportionately, which complicates the measurement of domestic content embedded in exports and the distribution of income generated from exports. In this paper, we extend the method developed by Koopman et al. (2012) to further distinguish between Chinese exports by FIEs and Chinese-owned enterprises (COEs), in addition to processing and normal exports. We propose an accounting framework and a detailed estimation procedure that separately account for the production and trade activities of FIEs and COEs. First, we decompose gross exports into domestic and foreign content by firm types. Then, we estimate factor ownership by firm types based on enterprise surveys. Finally, we compute the distribution of domestic content by factor ownership. Empirical estimation is based on China’s 2007 benchmark input–output tables, supplemented by detailed trade and production statistics. Firm heterogeneity within each industry is identified by linking the NBS enterprises survey and the Customs’ firm-level trade data. The empirical results from 2007 indicate the following: (1) domestic content accounted for around 59% of total exports; (2) FIEs operating in China created nearly 45% of the domestic content in Chinese exports, whereas processing COEs only contributed by less than 5%; (3) in terms of income distribution, about 52.6% of the value of Chinese exports was captured by foreign factor owners.

Suggested Citation

  • Ma, Hong & Wang, Zhi & Zhu, Kunfu, 2015. "Domestic content in China’s exports and its distribution by firm ownership," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 3-18.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jcecon:v:43:y:2015:i:1:p:3-18
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jce.2014.11.006
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Robert Koopman & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2014. "Tracing Value-Added and Double Counting in Gross Exports," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 459-494, February.
    2. Chen, Xikang & Cheng, Leonard K. & Fung, K.C. & Lau, Lawrence J. & Sung, Yun-Wing & Zhu, K. & Yang, C. & Pei, J. & Duan, Y., 2012. "Domestic value added and employment generated by Chinese exports: A quantitative estimation," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 850-864.
    3. Feenstra, Robert C. & Jensen, J. Bradford, 2012. "Evaluating estimates of materials offshoring from US manufacturing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 170-173.
    4. Yuqing Xing & Neal Detert, 2011. "How the iPhone Widens the United States Trade Deficit with the People's Republic of China:," Aussenwirtschaft, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, Swiss Institute for International Economics and Applied Economics Research, vol. 66(03), pages 339-350, September.
    5. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    6. Upward, Richard & Wang, Zheng & Zheng, Jinghai, 2013. "Weighing China’s export basket: The domestic content and technology intensity of Chinese exports," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 527-543.
    7. Koopman, Robert & Wang, Zhi & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2012. "Estimating domestic content in exports when processing trade is pervasive," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 178-189.
    8. Johnson, Robert C. & Noguera, Guillermo, 2012. "Accounting for intermediates: Production sharing and trade in value added," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 224-236.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Reda Cherif & Fuad Hasanov, 2015. "The Leap of the Tiger; How Malaysia Can Escape the Middle-Income Trap," IMF Working Papers 15/131, International Monetary Fund.
    2. James J. Fetzer & Tina Highfill & Kassu W. Hossiso & Thomas F. Howells III & Erich H. Strassner & Jeffrey A. Young, 2018. "Accounting for Firm Heterogeneity within U.S. Industries: Extended Supply-Use Tables and Trade in Value Added using Enterprise and Establishment Level Data," NBER Chapters,in: The Challenges of Globalization in the Measurement of National Accounts National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. ITO Koji & Ivan DESEATNICOV & FUKAO Kyoji, 2017. "Japanese Plants' Heterogeneity in Sales, Factor Inputs, and Participation in Global Value Chains," Discussion papers 17117, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    4. Los, Bart & Timmer, Marcel P. & de Vries, Gaaitzen J., 2015. "How important are exports for job growth in China? A demand side analysis," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 19-32.
    5. Caroline Hambye & Bart Hertveldt & Bernhard Klaus Michel, 2018. "Working Paper 11-18 - Value chain integration of export-oriented and domestic market manufacturing firms - An analysis based on a heterogeneous input-output table for Belgium," Working Papers 1811, Federal Planning Bureau, Belgium.
    6. repec:anr:reveco:v:10:y:2018:p:207-236 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Mao, R., 2018. "A Firm-Level Reappraisal of Real Exchange Rate Undervaluation in China s Agricultural Exports and Growth," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 276987, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    8. Robert C. Johnson, 2018. "Measuring Global Value Chains," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 10(1), pages 207-236, August.
    9. Jiang, Xuemei & Guan, Dabo & Zhang, Jin & Zhu, Kunfu & Green, Christopher, 2015. "Firm ownership, China's export related emissions, and the responsibility issue," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 466-474.
    10. Liu, Yu & Meng, Bo & Hubacek, Klaus & Xue, Jinjun & Feng, Kuishuang & Gao, Yuning, 2016. "‘Made in China’: A reevaluation of embodied CO2 emissions in Chinese exports using firm heterogeneity information," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 1106-1113.
    11. Yu, Liu & Meng, Bo & Hubacek, Klaus & Xue, Jinjun & Feng, Kuishuang & Gao, Yuning, 2016. "How does firm heterogeneity information impact the estimation of embodied carbon emissions in Chinese exports?," IDE Discussion Papers 592, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    12. James Fetzer & Erich Strassner, 2015. "Identifying Heterogeneity in the Production Components of Globally Engaged Business Enterprises in the United States," EcoMod2015 8741, EcoMod.
    13. Sasahara, Akira, 2018. "Explaining the Employment Effect of Exports: Value-Added Content Matters," MPRA Paper 89731, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. repec:eee:eneeco:v:74:y:2018:i:c:p:708-720 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Domestic content; Foreign content; Processing exports; Global value chain; Vertical specialization;

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access

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