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Women in top management and agency costs

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  • Jurkus, Anthony F.
  • Park, Jung Chul
  • Woodard, Lorraine S.

Abstract

This study investigates gender diversity among the top managers of Fortune 500 firms and its effect on agency costs. The study finds that firms with a greater percentage of female officers present lower agency costs but that the negative relation is not robust when considering the endogeneity of diversity. The study also finds that external governance influences the relationship. Although increasing diversity does not reduce agency costs for all firms, the evidence shows that diversity is significantly negatively related to agency costs in firms in less competitive markets. The results suggest that increasing diversity in management can have beneficial effects for firms where strong external governance is absent.

Suggested Citation

  • Jurkus, Anthony F. & Park, Jung Chul & Woodard, Lorraine S., 2011. "Women in top management and agency costs," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 180-186, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:64:y:2011:i:2:p:180-186
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Cindy Truong, Yan Wendy Wu, 2014. "Female Bank Executives: Impact on Performance and Risk Taking Substitutes?," LCERPA Working Papers wm0067, Laurier Centre for Economic Research and Policy Analysis.
    3. Cano-Rodríguez, Manuel & Márquez-Illescas, Gilberto & Núñez-Níckel, Manuel, 2017. "Experts or rivals: Mimicry and voluntary disclosure," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 46-54.
    4. Alireza Vafaei & Kamran Ahmed & Paul Mather, 2015. "Board Diversity and Financial Performance in the Top 500 Australian Firms," Australian Accounting Review, CPA Australia, vol. 25(4), pages 413-427, December.
    5. Chang, Kiyoung & Kang, Eun & Li, Ying, 2016. "Effect of institutional ownership on dividends: An agency-theory-based analysis," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(7), pages 2551-2559.
    6. Namazi, Mohammad & Shokrolahi, Ahmad & Sadeghzadeh Maharluie, Mohammad, 2016. "Detecting and ranking cash flow risk factors via artificial neural networks technique," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1801-1806.
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    8. repec:eee:jocaae:v:13:y:2017:i:2:p:89-107 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Sabrina Wieland & Benjamin Flavel, 2015. "The influence of gender diverse corporate boards on employee-orientation," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 19(4), pages 825-848, November.
    10. Paul McGuinness & Kevin Lam & João Vieito, 2015. "Gender and other major board characteristics in China: Explaining corporate dividend policy and governance," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 989-1038, December.
    11. Perryman, Alexa A. & Fernando, Guy D. & Tripathy, Arindam, 2016. "Do gender differences persist? An examination of gender diversity on firm performance, risk, and executive compensation," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 579-586.
    12. Cacciolatti, Luca & Lee, Soo Hee, 2016. "Revisiting the relationship between marketing capabilities and firm performance: The moderating role of market orientation, marketing strategy and organisational power," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 5597-5610.
    13. Sheila Ellwood & Javier Garcia-Lacalle, 2015. "The Influence of Presence and Position of Women on the Boards of Directors: The Case of NHS Foundation Trusts," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 130(1), pages 69-84, August.
    14. repec:eee:iburev:v:26:y:2017:i:6:p:1100-1113 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Adame, Consolación & Caplliure, Eva-María & Miquel, María-José, 2016. "Work–life balance and firms: A matter of women?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(4), pages 1379-1383.
    16. Zulkufly Ramly & Sok-Gee Chan & Mohd Zulkhairi Mustapha & Noor Sharoja Sapiei, 2017. "Women on boards and bank efficiency in ASEAN-5: the moderating role of the independent directors," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 225-250, January.
    17. Upadhyay, Arun & Zeng, Hongchao, 2014. "Gender and ethnic diversity on boards and corporate information environment," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(11), pages 2456-2463.
    18. Marcus Noland & Tyler Moran & Barbara Kotschwar, 2016. "Is Gender Diversity Profitable? Evidence from a Global Survey," Working Paper Series WP16-3, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    19. repec:spr:jecfin:v:42:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s12197-017-9397-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Ajay Palvia & Emilia Vähämaa & Sami Vähämaa, 2015. "Are Female CEOs and Chairwomen More Conservative and Risk Averse? Evidence from the Banking Industry During the Financial Crisis," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 131(3), pages 577-594, October.
    21. Michael J. Peel, 2014. "Addressing unobserved endogeneity bias in accounting studies: control and sensitivity methods by variable type," Accounting and Business Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(5), pages 545-571, October.

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