Women in top management and agency costs
This study investigates gender diversity among the top managers of Fortune 500 firms and its effect on agency costs. The study finds that firms with a greater percentage of female officers present lower agency costs but that the negative relation is not robust when considering the endogeneity of diversity. The study also finds that external governance influences the relationship. Although increasing diversity does not reduce agency costs for all firms, the evidence shows that diversity is significantly negatively related to agency costs in firms in less competitive markets. The results suggest that increasing diversity in management can have beneficial effects for firms where strong external governance is absent.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Paul Gompers & Joy Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2003.
"Corporate Governance And Equity Prices,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 118(1), pages 107-155, February.
- Paul A. Gompers & Joy L. Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2002. "Corporate Governance and Equity Prices," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 02-32, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Paul A. Gompers & Joy L. Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2001. "Corporate Governance and Equity Prices," NBER Working Papers 8449, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Moncrief, William C. & Babakus, Emin & Cravens, David W. & Johnston, Mark W., 2000. "Examining Gender Differences in Field Sales Organizations," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 245-257, September.
- Bruton, Garry D. & Keels, J. Kay & Scifres, Elton L., 2002. "Corporate restructuring and performance: An agency perspective on the complete buyout cycle," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 55(9), pages 709-724, September.
- Nina Smith & Valdemar Smith & Mette Verner, 2005.
"Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? A Panel Study of 2500 Danish Firms,"
CIE Discussion Papers
2005-03, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
- Smith, Nina & Smith, Valdemar & Verner, Mette, 2005. "Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? A Panel Study of 2500 Danish Firms," IZA Discussion Papers 1708, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
- Wolfers, Justin, 2006.
"Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5507, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Justin Wolfers, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 531-541, 04-05.
- Justin Wolfers, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," NBER Working Papers 11989, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wolfers, Justin, 2006. "Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and CEO Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 1944, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kee H. Chung & Stephen W. Pruitt, 1994. "A Simple Approximation of Tobin's q," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
- Adams, Renée B. & Ferreira, Daniel, 2009. "Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 291-309, November.
- David R. Graham & Daniel P. Kaplan & David S. Sibley, 1983. "Efficiency and Competition in the Airline Industry," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(1), pages 118-138, Spring.
- Michael S. Rozeff, 1982. "Growth, Beta And Agency Costs As Determinants Of Dividend Payout Ratios," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 5(3), pages 249-259, 09.
- Mary E. Graham & Julie Hotchkiss, 2003. "Which industries are the best employers for women? an application of a new Equal Employment Opportunity Index," FRB Atlanta Working Paper No. 2003-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Nickell, S.J., 1993.
"Competition and Crporate Performance,"
Economics Series Working Papers
99155, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Oliver D. Hart, 1983. "The Market Mechanism as an Incentive Scheme," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(2), pages 366-382, Autumn.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:64:y:2011:i:2:p:180-186. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.