IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jbfina/v71y2016icp62-74.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Reducing the impact of real estate foreclosures with Amortizing Participation Mortgages

Author

Listed:
  • Wojakowski, Rafal M.
  • Ebrahim, M. Shahid
  • Shackleton, Mark B.

Abstract

We employ Amortizing Participation Mortgage (APM) to offer a novel ex post renegotiation method of a foreclosure. APM belongs to the family of home loan credit facilities advocated in the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act 2010. In our framework, APMs reduce the endemic agency costs of debt by improving affordability. These benefits increase the demand for real estate in bust times and reduce fragility of the financial system thereby preventing foreclosures. We evaluate APMs in a stochastic control framework and provide solutions for an optimal amortization schedule. We generalize our approach to partially amortizing and commercial mortgages which encompass balloon payments. Finally, we provide concrete numerical examples of home loan modifications. We also offer detailed sensitivity analysis to market parameters such as house price volatility and interest rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Wojakowski, Rafal M. & Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B., 2016. "Reducing the impact of real estate foreclosures with Amortizing Participation Mortgages," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 62-74.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:71:y:2016:i:c:p:62-74
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbankfin.2016.05.005
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378426616300760
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 1998. "Value versus Growth: The International Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1975-1999, December.
    2. Modigliani, Franco., 1974. "Some economic implications of the indexing of financial assets with special reference to mortgages," Working papers 736-74., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    3. Shackleton, Mark B. & Wojakowski, Rafal, 2007. "Finite maturity caps and floors on continuous flows," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 3843-3859, December.
    4. Ross Levine & Norman Loayza & Thorsten Beck, 2002. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Leonardo Hernández & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Se (ed.),Banking, Financial Integration, and International Crises, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 2, pages 031-084, Central Bank of Chile.
    5. Robert J. Shiller, 2014. "Why Is Housing Finance Still Stuck in Such a Primitive Stage?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(5), pages 73-76, May.
    6. Shiller, Robert J. & Wojakowski, Rafał M. & Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B., 2013. "Mitigating financial fragility with Continuous Workout Mortgages," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 269-285.
    7. Robert A. Jarrow & Stuart M. Turnbull, 2008. "Pricing Derivatives on Financial Securities Subject to Credit Risk," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Financial Derivatives Pricing Selected Works of Robert Jarrow, chapter 17, pages 377-409, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    8. Merton, Robert C., 1971. "Optimum consumption and portfolio rules in a continuous-time model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 373-413, December.
    9. Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B. & Wojakowski, Rafal M., 2011. "Participating mortgages and the efficiency of financial intermediation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 3042-3054, November.
    10. M. Shahid Ebrahim, 1996. "On the Design and Pareto‐Optimality of Participating Mortgages," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 24(3), pages 407-419, September.
    11. Lessard, Donald R. & Modigliani, Franco., 1975. "Inflation and the housing market : problems and potential solutions," Working papers 813-75., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    12. LeRoy, Stephen F, 1996. "Mortgage Valuation under Optimal Prepayment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(3), pages 817-844.
    13. Kau, James B, et al, 1992. "A Generalized Valuation Model for Fixed-Rate Residential Mortgages," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 24(3), pages 279-299, August.
    14. Shahid Ebrahim, M. & Hussain, Sikandar, 2010. "Financial development and asset valuation: The special case of real estate," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 150-162, January.
    15. Michael Rothschild & Joseph Stiglitz, 1976. "Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(4), pages 629-649.
    16. Tomasz Piskorski & Alexei Tchistyi, 2010. "Optimal Mortgage Design," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(8), pages 3098-3140, August.
    17. Daniel, Kent & Titman, Sheridan, 1997. "Evidence on the Characteristics of Cross Sectional Variation in Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 1-33, March.
    18. Loic Chiquier & Michael Lea, 2009. "Housing Finance Policy in Emerging Markets," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2641, November.
    19. Merton, Robert C., 1976. "Option pricing when underlying stock returns are discontinuous," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 125-144.
    20. Brueckner, Jan K, 2000. "Mortgage Default with Asymmetric Information," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 251-274, May.
    21. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    22. Richard Stanton & Nancy Wallace, 1998. "Mortgage Choice: What's the Point?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(2), pages 173-205, June.
    23. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    24. Zhiguo He, 2009. "Optimal Executive Compensation when Firm Size Follows Geometric Brownian Motion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(2), pages 859-892, February.
    25. Merton, Robert C, 1969. "Lifetime Portfolio Selection under Uncertainty: The Continuous-Time Case," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(3), pages 247-257, August.
    26. Posey, Lisa L. & Yavas, Abdullah, 2001. "Adjustable and Fixed Rate Mortgages as a Screening Mechanism for Default Risk," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 54-79, January.
    27. Titman, Sheridan, 1985. "Urban Land Prices under Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 505-514, June.
    28. Brueckner Jan K., 1994. "Borrower Mobility, Adverse Selection, and Mortgage Points," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 416-441, September.
    29. Lee, Pei-Ting & Rosenfield, Donald B., 2005. "When to refinance a mortgage: A dynamic programming approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 166(1), pages 266-277, October.
    30. Chari, V V & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1989. " Adverse Selection in a Model of Real Estate Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 499-508, June.
    31. Arthur J. Hosios & Michael Peters, 1989. "Repeated Insurance Contracts with Adverse Selection and Limited Commitment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(2), pages 229-253.
    32. Smith, Clifford Jr. & Warner, Jerold B., 1979. "On financial contracting : An analysis of bond covenants," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 117-161, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lukman Hanif Arbi, 2021. "A Contract Theory Approach to Islamic Financial Securities with an Application to Diminishing Mushārakah," Journal of Risk and Financial Management, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 14(1), pages 1-12, January.
    2. Li-Fei Huang, 2018. "Using App Inventor to provide the amortization schedule and the sinking fund schedule," International Journal of Financial Engineering (IJFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 5(04), pages 1-9, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B. & Wojakowski, Rafal M., 2011. "Participating mortgages and the efficiency of financial intermediation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 3042-3054, November.
    2. Jan K. Brueckner & Kangoh Lee, 2014. "Optimal Risk-Sharing in Mortgage Contracts: The Effects of Potential Prepayment and Default," CESifo Working Paper Series 4979, CESifo.
    3. Gomes, Francisco J & Haliassos, Michael & Ramadorai, Tarun, 2020. "Household Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 14502, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Shiller, Robert J. & Wojakowski, Rafal M. & Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B., 2019. "Continuous Workout Mortgages: Efficient pricing and systemic implications," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 244-274.
    5. Shiller, Robert J. & Wojakowski, Rafał M. & Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B., 2013. "Mitigating financial fragility with Continuous Workout Mortgages," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 269-285.
    6. Shahid Ebrahim, M. & Hussain, Sikandar, 2010. "Financial development and asset valuation: The special case of real estate," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 150-162, January.
    7. Robert J. Shiller & Rafal M. Wojakowski & M. Shahid Ebrahim & Mark B. Shackleton, 2017. "Continuous Workout Mortgages: Efficient Pricing and Systemic Implications," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 3016, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    8. Arnold, Lutz G. & Babl, Andreas, 2014. "Alas, my home is my castle: On the cost of house ownership as a screening device," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 57-64.
    9. Anthony Yezer & Pingkang Yu, 2016. "Costly Screening, Self-Selection, Fraud, and the Organization of Credit Markets," Working Papers 2016-4, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    10. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.
    11. Suresh M. Sundaresan, 2000. "Continuous‐Time Methods in Finance: A Review and an Assessment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(4), pages 1569-1622, August.
    12. Alexei Tchistyi & Tomasz Piskorski, 2008. "Stochastic House Appreciation and Optimal Mortgage Lending," 2008 Meeting Papers 938, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    13. Alexei Tchistyi, 2018. "An Equilibrium Model of Housing and Mortgage Markets with State-Contingent Lending Contracts," 2018 Meeting Papers 244, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    14. Guiso, Luigi & Sodini, Paolo, 2013. "Household Finance: An Emerging Field," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1397-1532, Elsevier.
    15. Robert A. Jarrow, 1999. "In Honor of the Nobel Laureates Robert C. Merton and Myron S. Scholes: A Partial Differential Equation That Changed the World," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(4), pages 229-248, Fall.
    16. Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Jaafar, Aziz & Omar, Fatma A. & Salleh, Murizah Osman, 2016. "Can Islamic injunctions indemnify the structural flaws of securitized debt?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 271-286.
    17. Mayer, Chris & Piskorski, Tomasz & Tchistyi, Alexei, 2013. "The inefficiency of refinancing: Why prepayment penalties are good for risky borrowers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(3), pages 694-714.
    18. Jevgenijs Steinbuks & Gregory Elliehausen, 2014. "The Economic Effects of Legal Restrictions on High-Cost Mortgages," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 47-72, July.
    19. Maclachlan, Iain C, 2007. "An empirical study of corporate bond pricing with unobserved capital structure dynamics," MPRA Paper 28416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Duffie, Darrell, 2003. "Intertemporal asset pricing theory," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 639-742, Elsevier.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Dodd–Frank Act; Home loan modification; Prepayment; Default; Partial amortization; Shared Income Mortgage; Indexation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • R31 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Housing Supply and Markets
    • R38 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Government Policy
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:71:y:2016:i:c:p:62-74. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.