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On the Design and Pareto-Optimality of Participating Mortgages


  • M. Shahid Ebrahim


This paper develops a micro-economic model and proceeds with numerical simulation to demonstrate that participating mortgages can improve social welfare when the real estate ownership is shared among the different taxable entities. The optimal distribution of real estate ownership and lending will tend to be concentrated in taxable and nontaxable hands, respectively, with lending conducted via participating mortgages. This paper also demonstrates the violation of the well-known, risk-neutral valuation argument of the Black and Scholes (1973) model because of the lack of a riskless hedge due to the uniqueness of real estate. Copyright American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Shahid Ebrahim, 1996. "On the Design and Pareto-Optimality of Participating Mortgages," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 24(3), pages 407-419.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:24:y:1996:i:3:p:407-419

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Case, Bradford & Pollakowski, Henry O & Wachter, Susan M, 1997. "Frequency of Transaction and House Price Modeling," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1-2), pages 173-187, Jan.-Marc.
    2. Jesse M. Abraham & William S. Schauman, 1991. "New Evidence on Home Prices from Freddie Mac Repeat Sales," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 19(3), pages 333-352.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B. & Wojakowski, Rafal M., 2011. "Participating mortgages and the efficiency of financial intermediation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 3042-3054, November.
    2. Wojakowski, Rafal M. & Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B., 2016. "Reducing the impact of real estate foreclosures with Amortizing Participation Mortgages," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 62-74.
    3. Sikandar Hussain & M. Shahid Ebrahim, 2005. "Financial Development and Property Valuation," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005 24, Society for Computational Economics.
    4. Shahid Ebrahim, M. & Hussain, Sikandar, 2010. "Financial development and asset valuation: The special case of real estate," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 150-162, January.
    5. Varli, Yusuf & Yildirim, Yildiray, 2015. "Default and prepayment modelling in participating mortgages," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 81-88.
    6. Jaime Alvayay & Charles Harter & WM. Smith, 2005. "A Theoretic Analysis of Extent of Lender Participation in a Participating Mortgage," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 25(4), pages 383-411, December.
    7. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.

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