IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/gwi/wpaper/2016-4.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Costly Screening, Self-Selection, Fraud, and the Organization of Credit Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Anthony Yezer

    (Department of Economics/Institute for International Economic Policy, George Washington University)

  • Pingkang Yu

Abstract

This paper analyzes a credit market that includes a costly, universal and imperfect screening technology with both type I and type II errors and borrower self-selection. Universal screening is necessary because there are fraudulent borrowers. These characteristics, which have been omitted from other models, make it more representative of actual mortgage and consumer lending conditions. Contrary to the results in previous models with random screening, the combination of universal screening and type I screening error produces a pooling equilibrium as a non-trivial outcome. This result suggests that generalized lenders can sometimes compete with specialized lenders serving a single borrower type in credit markets that rely on costly lender screening. At other times pooling lenders will not be competitive and this, by itself, could lead to periodic waves of failure. These theoretical results appear to have implications for stability in markets for consumer credit.

Suggested Citation

  • Anthony Yezer & Pingkang Yu, 2016. "Costly Screening, Self-Selection, Fraud, and the Organization of Credit Markets," Working Papers 2016-4, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
  • Handle: RePEc:gwi:wpaper:2016-4
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.gwu.edu/~iiep/assets/docs/papers/2016WP/YezerIIEPWP2016-4.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Alberto Martin, 2007. "On Rothschild–Stiglitz as Competitive Pooling," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 31(2), pages 371-386, May.
    2. Sumit Agarwal & Brent W. Ambrose & Souphala Chomsisengphet & Chunlin Liu, 2011. "The Role of Soft Information in a Dynamic Contract Setting: Evidence from the Home Equity Credit Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(4), pages 633-655, June.
    3. De Meza, David & Webb, David C., 1988. "Credit market efficiency and tax policy in the presence of screening costs," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 1-22, June.
    4. Bester, Helmut, 1987. "The role of collateral in credit markets with imperfect information," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 887-899, June.
    5. Alexis Direr, 2008. "Multiple Equilibria in Markets with Screening," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 791-798, June.
    6. Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos, 2002. "Competitive Pooling: Rothschild-Stiglitz Reconsidered," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(4), pages 1529-1570.
    7. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
    8. Broecker, Thorsten, 1990. "Credit-Worthiness Tests and Interbank Competition," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(2), pages 429-452, March.
    9. LeRoy, Stephen F, 1996. "Mortgage Valuation under Optimal Prepayment," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(3), pages 817-844.
    10. Kau, James B, et al, 1992. "A Generalized Valuation Model for Fixed-Rate Residential Mortgages," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 24(3), pages 279-299, August.
    11. Gehrig, Thomas & Stenbacka, Rune, 2001. "Screening Cycles," CEPR Discussion Papers 2915, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Melanie Cao & Shouyong Shi, 2001. "Screening, Bidding, and the Loan Market Tightness," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 5(1-2), pages 21-61.
    13. Michael Rothschild & Joseph Stiglitz, 1976. "Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(4), pages 629-649.
    14. Brueckner, Jan K, 2000. "Mortgage Default with Asymmetric Information," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 251-274, May.
    15. Hellwig, Martin, 1987. "Some recent developments in the theory of competition in markets with adverse selection ," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-2), pages 319-325.
    16. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    17. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-855, September.
    18. Wilson, Charles, 1977. "A model of insurance markets with incomplete information," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 167-207, December.
    19. Brueckner Jan K., 1994. "Borrower Mobility, Adverse Selection, and Mortgage Points," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 416-441, September.
    20. Townsend, Robert M., 1979. "Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 265-293, October.
    21. Ryan Bubb & Alex Kaufman, 2009. "Securitization and moral hazard: evidence from a lender cutoff rule," Public Policy Discussion Paper 09-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    22. Alexis Direr, 2008. "Multiple Equilibria in Markets with Screening," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 791-798, June.
    23. Wang, Cheng & Williamson, Steve, 1998. "Debt Contracts and Financial Intermediation with Costly Screening," Staff General Research Papers Archive 5086, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    24. Cheng Wang & Stephen D. Williamson, 1998. "Debt Contracts with Financial Intermediation with Costly Screening," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(3), pages 573-595, August.
    25. Joseph Nichols & Anthony Pennington-Cross & Anthony Yezer, 2004. "Borrower Self-Selection, Underwriting Costs, and Subprime Mortgage Credit Supply," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 197-219, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Wojakowski, Rafal M. & Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B., 2016. "Reducing the impact of real estate foreclosures with Amortizing Participation Mortgages," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 62-74.
    2. Arnold, Lutz G. & Babl, Andreas, 2014. "Alas, my home is my castle: On the cost of house ownership as a screening device," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 57-64.
    3. Alberto Martin, 2008. "Adverse selection, credit and efficiency: The case of the missing market," Economics Working Papers 1085, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Sep 2009.
    4. Berger, Allen N. & Espinosa-Vega, Marco A. & Frame, W. Scott & Miller, Nathan H., 2011. "Why do borrowers pledge collateral? New empirical evidence on the role of asymmetric information," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 55-70, January.
    5. Ikeda, Daisuke, 2020. "Adverse selection, lemons shocks and business cycles," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 94-112.
    6. Berger, Allen N. & Scott Frame, W. & Ioannidou, Vasso, 2011. "Tests of ex ante versus ex post theories of collateral using private and public information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 85-97, April.
    7. Martin, Alberto & Taddei, Filippo, 2013. "International capital flows and credit market imperfections: A tale of two frictions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 441-452.
    8. Hans Gersbach & Harald Uhlig, 2007. "On the Coexistence of Banks and Markets," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 109(2), pages 225-243, June.
    9. Vesala, Timo, 2004. "Asymmetric information in credit markets and entrepreneurial risk taking," Research Discussion Papers 14/2004, Bank of Finland.
    10. Martin, Alberto, 2009. "A model of collateral, investment, and adverse selection," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(4), pages 1572-1588, July.
    11. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Robert Marquez, 2006. "Lending Booms and Lending Standards," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2511-2546, October.
    12. Hainz, Christa, 2008. "Bank Competition - When is it Good?," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 244, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    13. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2018. "Frontiers of macrofinancial linkages," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 95.
    14. Diasakos, Theodoros M. & Koufopoulos, Kostas, 2018. "(Neutrally) Optimal Mechanism under Adverse Selection: The canonical insurance problem," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 159-186.
    15. Sengupta, Rajdeep, 2014. "Lending to uncreditworthy borrowers," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 101-128.
    16. Figueroa, Nicolás & Leukhina, Oksana, 2018. "Cash flows and credit cycles," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 318-332.
    17. De Feo, Giuseppe & Hindriks, Jean, 2014. "Harmful competition in insurance markets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 213-226.
    18. Scheepens, J.P.J.F., 1993. "Bankruptcy litigation and optimal debt contracts," Other publications TiSEM 64e785e4-4101-4604-a392-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    19. Robert J. Gary-Bobo & Alain Trannoy, 2015. "Optimal student loans and graduate tax under moral hazard and adverse selection," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 46(3), pages 546-576, September.
    20. Inderst, Roman & Wambach, Achim, 2001. "Competitive insurance markets under adverse selection and capacity constraints," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 1981-1992, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    costly screening; screening cost; self selection; pooling equilibrium; separating equilibrium;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
    • D86 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Economics of Contract Law
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • L16 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics; Macroeconomic Industrial Structure

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gwi:wpaper:2016-4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iigwuus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Kyle Renner (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iigwuus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.