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On additive spillovers and returns to scale in R&D

Listed author(s):
  • Amir, Rabah
  • Jin, Jim Y.
  • Troege, Michael

This paper explores economically meaningful forms of cost functions for process research and development in the presence of imperfect appropriability of inventive output. We propose, as a central criterion to be satisfied by the knowledge production process, that a given R&D investment should always produce more cost reduction if devoted to one lab rather than two independent labs operated under natural spillovers. With input spillovers this postulate is broadly satisfied. However, with output spillovers this is generally not the case for R&D technologies having decreasing returns to scale. We identify economically plausible restrictions on the size of spillovers and on the properties of the R&D cost function so as to bring about compatibility with the above postulate. Some empirical evidence in support of both the criterion and of its theoretical implications is discussed.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Industrial Organization.

Volume (Year): 26 (2008)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 695-703

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Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:26:y:2008:i:3:p:695-703
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505551

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  1. AMIR, Rabah & WOODERS, John, 1997. "One-way spillovers, endogenous innovator/imitator roles and research joint ventures," CORE Discussion Papers 1997027, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  2. Piga, Claudio & Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna, 2005. "Endogenous R&D spillovers and locational choice," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 127-139, March.
  3. Spence, Michael, 1984. "Cost Reduction, Competition, and Industry Performance," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 101-121, January.
  4. Hauenschild, Nils, 2003. "On the role of input and output spillovers when R&D projects are risky," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(8), pages 1065-1089, October.
  5. AMIR, Rabah & EVSTIGNEEV, Igor & WOODERS, John, "undated". "Noncooperative versus cooperative R&D with endogenous spillover rates," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1650, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  6. Jim Y. Jin & Michael Troege, 2006. "R&D Competition And Endogenous Spillovers," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 74(1), pages 40-51, 01.
  7. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-1137, December.
  8. Kamien, Morton I. & Zang, Israel, 2000. "Meet me halfway: research joint ventures and absorptive capacity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 995-1012, October.
  9. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-1306, December.
  10. Jaffe, A.B. & Trajtenberg, M., 1992. "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations," Papers 14-92, Tel Aviv.
  11. Ruff, Larry E., 1969. "Research and technological progress in a cournot economy," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 397-415, December.
  12. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-596, September.
  13. Bronwyn H. Hall & Adam Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg, 2005. "Market Value and Patent Citations," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(1), pages 16-38, Spring.
  14. Rabah Amir & John Wooders, 1998. "Cooperation vs. competition in R&D: The role of stability of equilibrium," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 67(1), pages 63-73, February.
  15. Tarun Khanna & Marco Iansiti, 1997. "Firm Asymmetries and Sequential R&D: Theory and Evidence from the Mainframe Computer Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(4), pages 405-421, April.
  16. Tom Lee & Louis L. Wilde, 1980. "Market Structure and Innovation: A Reformulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(2), pages 429-436.
  17. Amir, Rabah, 2000. "Modelling imperfectly appropriable R&D via spillovers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 1013-1032, October.
  18. Rabah Amir & John Wooders, 1999. "Effects of One-Way Spillovers on Market Shares, Industry Price, Welfare, and R & D Cooperation," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(2), pages 223-249, 06.
  19. Michael L. Katz, 1986. "An Analysis of Cooperative Research and Development," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(4), pages 527-543, Winter.
  20. Wiethaus, Lars, 2005. "Absorptive capacity and connectedness: Why competing firms also adopt identical R&D approaches," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(5-6), pages 467-481, June.
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