IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Exchange rate exposure in the South African stock market before and during the COVID-19 pandemic


  • Iyke, Bernard Njindan
  • Ho, Sin-Yu


We examine the nature of exchange rate exposure before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a multifactor arbitrage pricing model and daily data from South Africa, we show that, as compared with sectors, industries have been more exposed to the exchange rate risk during than before the pandemic. We further show that exchange rate exposure mostly hurts the sectors and industries, although a few sectors, such as beverages, mining, personal goods, and tobacco, and industries, such as basic materials, consumer goods, and technology, may benefit from it. Our estimates survived robustness checks.

Suggested Citation

  • Iyke, Bernard Njindan & Ho, Sin-Yu, 2021. "Exchange rate exposure in the South African stock market before and during the COVID-19 pandemic," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 43(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finlet:v:43:y:2021:i:c:s1544612321000817
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Yating Wang & Donghao Zhang & Xiaoquan Wang & Qiuyao Fu, 2020. "How Does COVID-19 Affect China’s Insurance Market?," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 56(10), pages 2350-2362, August.
    2. Topcu, Mert & Gulal, Omer Serkan, 2020. "The impact of COVID-19 on emerging stock markets," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 36(C).
    3. Grossman, Sanford J & Shiller, Robert J, 1981. "The Determinants of the Variability of Stock Market Prices," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 222-227, May.
    4. Schiereck, D. & Freytag, A. & Grimm, M. & Bretschneider, W. H., 2018. "Public Corporations in Africa – A Continental Survey on Stock Exchanges and Capital Market Performance," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 109715, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    5. Stephen A. Ross, 2013. "The Arbitrage Theory of Capital Asset Pricing," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Leonard C MacLean & William T Ziemba (ed.), HANDBOOK OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCIAL DECISION MAKING Part I, chapter 1, pages 11-30, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Bernard Njindan Iyke & Sin‐Yu Ho, 2020. "Consumption and exchange rate uncertainty: Evidence from selected Asian countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(9), pages 2437-2462, September.
    7. Sharma, Susan Sunila & Phan, Dinh Hoang Bach & Iyke, Bernard, 2019. "Do oil prices predict Indonesian macroeconomy?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 2-12.
    8. Bernard Njindan Iyke, 2020. "The Disease Outbreak Channel of Exchange Rate Return Predictability: Evidence from COVID-19," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 56(10), pages 2277-2297, August.
    9. Söhnke M. Bartram & Gordon M. Bodnar, 2007. "The exchange rate exposure puzzle," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(9), pages 642-666, August.
    10. Jorion, Philippe, 1991. "The Pricing of Exchange Rate Risk in the Stock Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(3), pages 363-376, September.
    11. Dominguez, Kathryn M.E. & Tesar, Linda L., 2006. "Exchange rate exposure," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 188-218, January.
    12. Chen, Nai-Fu & Roll, Richard & Ross, Stephen A, 1986. "Economic Forces and the Stock Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(3), pages 383-403, July.
    13. Horst Entorf & Jochen Moebert & Katja Sonderhof, 2011. "The Foreign Exchange Rate Exposure of Nations," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 339-353, April.
    14. Mulatu Zerihun & Marthinus Breitenbach & Bernard Njindan Iyke, 2020. "A Comparative Analysis of Currency Volatility among BRICS Countries," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 78-104, January.
    15. Jorion, Philippe, 1990. "The Exchange-Rate Exposure of U.S. Multinationals," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(3), pages 331-345, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Joel Ede Owuru, 2021. "Testing the Asymmetric Response of China’s Stock Returns to Oil Price Dynamics - Does Fear of COVID-19 Matter?," Asian Economics Letters, Asia-Pacific Applied Economics Association, vol. 2(3), pages 1-6.
    2. Xing Fang & Weijuan Cao, 2021. "The Impact of COVID-19 on the Status of RMB as an Anchor Currency," Asian Economics Letters, Asia-Pacific Applied Economics Association, vol. 2(1), pages 1-5.
    3. Joel Hinaunye Eita & Charles Raoul Tchuinkam Djemo, 2022. "Quantifying Foreign Exchange Risk in the Selected Listed Sectors of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange: An SV-EVT Pairwise Copula Approach," IJFS, MDPI, vol. 10(2), pages 1-29, April.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Entrop, Oliver & Fuchs, Fabian U., 2020. "Foreign exchange rate exposure of companies under dynamic regret," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-40-20, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    2. Mpoha, Salifya & Bonga-Bonga, Lumengo, 2020. "Assessing the extent of exchange rate risk pricing in equity markets: emerging versus developed economies," MPRA Paper 99597, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Horst Entorf & Gösta Jamin, 2007. "German Exchange Rate Exposure at DAX and Aggregate Levels, International Trade and the Role of Exchange Rate Adjustment Costs," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 8(3), pages 344-374, August.
    4. Fuchs, Fabian U., 2020. "Macroeconomic determinants of foreign exchange rate exposure," Passauer Diskussionspapiere, Betriebswirtschaftliche Reihe B-42-20, University of Passau, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    5. Krapl, Alain A., 2020. "The time-varying diversifiability of corporate foreign exchange exposure," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    6. Fatemi, Ali M. & Tavakkol, Amir & Dukas, Stephen P., 1996. "Foreign exchange exposure and the pricing of exchange rate risk," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 169-189.
    7. Bae, Sung C. & Kwon, Taek Ho & Park, Rae Soo, 2018. "Managing exchange rate exposure with hedging activities: New approach and evidence," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 133-150.
    8. Ekta Sikarwar & Roopak Gupta, 2019. "Economic exposure to exchange rate risk and financial hedging: Influence of ownership as a governance mechanism," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 46(4), pages 965-984, August.
    9. Muller, Aline & Verschoor, Willem F.C., 2006. "Foreign exchange risk exposure: Survey and suggestions," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 385-410, October.
    10. Aysun, Uluc & Guldi, Melanie, 2011. "Exchange rate exposure: A nonparametric approach," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 321-337.
    11. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2017. "Asset prices and macroeconomic outcomes: a survey," BIS Working Papers 676, Bank for International Settlements.
    12. Sung C. Bae & Hyeon Sook Kim & Taek Ho Kwon, 2018. "Currency derivatives for hedging: New evidence on determinants, firm risk, and performance," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 38(4), pages 446-467, April.
    13. Du, Ding, 2014. "Persistent exchange-rate movements and stock returns," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 36-53.
    14. Streit, Daniel, 2016. "Firm-level effects of asymmetric intervention in foreign exchange markets: Evidence from the Swiss currency floor," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 289-312.
    15. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2018. "Frontiers of macrofinancial linkages," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 95, May.
    16. Ekta Sikarwar & Ganesh Kumar Nidugala, 2018. "Effect of Central Bank Intervention in Estimating Exchange Rate Exposure: Evidence from an Emerging Market," Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Institute for Financial Management and Research, vol. 17(1), pages 60-95, April.
    17. repec:dau:papers:123456789/3019 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Ekta Sikarwar, 2014. "A Re-examination of Exchange Rate Exposure: Industry-level Analysis of Indian Firms," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 15(4), pages 867-882, December.
    19. Bartram, Söhnke M. & Bodnar, Gordon M., 2012. "Crossing the lines: The conditional relation between exchange rate exposure and stock returns in emerging and developed markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 766-792.
    20. Uluc Aysun & Melanie Guldi, 2008. "Increasing Derivatives Market Activity in Emerging Markets and Exchange Rate Exposure," Working papers 2008-06, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2008.
    21. Al-Shboul, Mohammad & Anwar, Sajid, 2014. "Pricing of the currency risk in the Canadian equity market," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 173-194.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finlet:v:43:y:2021:i:c:s1544612321000817. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.