IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/finana/v51y2017icp69-81.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Asymmetric effects of the international transmission of US financial stress. A threshold-VAR approach

Author

Listed:
  • Evgenidis, Anastasios
  • Tsagkanos, Athanasios

Abstract

During period of financial stress, the effect of financial stress shocks on economic activity might be different from what is usually observed in normal times. This paper investigates the transmission of financial stress episodes on the macroeconomy during stressed and normal periods and it explores how these events are transmitted to the Eurozone. We find that, a detrimental US financial shock leads to a worsening in economic and financial conditions both domestically and in the Eurozone. In addition, during turmoil times, financial accelerator mechanism amplifies and propagates the transmission of US financial stress shocks to the Eurozone by reducing its economic activity. Moreover, small financial stress shocks, rather than infrequent large ones, are able to create large fluctuations in inflation rates. Last, the effect of a detrimental shock in financial conditions has larger negative effects in the economy compared with the positive effects that would be generated by a beneficial shock in financial conditions.

Suggested Citation

  • Evgenidis, Anastasios & Tsagkanos, Athanasios, 2017. "Asymmetric effects of the international transmission of US financial stress. A threshold-VAR approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 69-81.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:51:y:2017:i:c:p:69-81
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2017.03.003
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1057521917300418
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.irfa.2017.03.003?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Fink, Fabian & Schüler, Yves S., 2015. "The transmission of US systemic financial stress: Evidence for emerging market economies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 6-26.
    2. Mittnik, Stefan & Semmler, Willi, 2013. "The real consequences of financial stress," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1479-1499.
    3. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1996. "The Financial Accelerator and the Flight to Quality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 1-15, February.
    4. Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist & Fabio M. Natalucci, 2007. "External Constraints on Monetary Policy and the Financial Accelerator," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(2‐3), pages 295-330, March.
    5. Bank for International Settlements, 2005. "Investigating the relationship between the financial and real economy," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 22.
    6. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    7. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    8. Nicholas Bloom, 2009. "The Impact of Uncertainty Shocks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(3), pages 623-685, May.
    9. Gilchrist, Simon & Yankov, Vladimir & Zakrajsek, Egon, 2009. "Credit market shocks and economic fluctuations: Evidence from corporate bond and stock markets," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 471-493, May.
    10. Jef Boeckx & Maarten Dossche & Gert Peersman, 2017. "Effectiveness and Transmission of the ECB's Balance Sheet Policies," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 13(1), pages 297-333, February.
    11. Fratzscher, Marcel, 2012. "Capital flows, push versus pull factors and the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 341-356.
    12. Balcilar, Mehmet & Thompson, Kirsten & Gupta, Rangan & van Eyden, Reneé, 2016. "Testing the asymmetric effects of financial conditions in South Africa: A nonlinear vector autoregression approach," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 30-43.
    13. Bernanke, Ben S. & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1999. "The financial accelerator in a quantitative business cycle framework," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 21, pages 1341-1393, Elsevier.
    14. Renée Fry-Mckibbin & Jasmine Zheng, 2016. "Effects of the US monetary policy shocks during financial crises – a threshold vector autoregression approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(59), pages 5802-5823, December.
    15. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
    16. Kim, Soyoung, 2001. "International transmission of U.S. monetary policy shocks: Evidence from VAR's," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 339-372, October.
    17. Ralph De Haas & Neeltje Van Horen, 2013. "Running for the Exit? International Bank Lending During a Financial Crisis," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(1), pages 244-285.
    18. António Afonso & Jaromír Baxa & Michal Slavík, 2018. "Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 54(2), pages 395-423, March.
    19. Kremer, Manfred & Lo Duca, Marco & Holló, Dániel, 2012. "CISS - a composite indicator of systemic stress in the financial system," Working Paper Series 1426, European Central Bank.
    20. Blaise Gadanecz & Kaushik Jayaram, 2009. "Measures of financial stability - a review," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Proceedings of the IFC Conference on "Measuring financial innovation and its impact", Basel, 26-27 August 2008, volume 31, pages 365-380, Bank for International Settlements.
    21. Philip R. Lane, 2013. "Capital Flows in the Euro Area," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 497, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    22. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 2003. "Critical values for multiple structural change tests," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 6(1), pages 72-78, June.
    23. Hubrich, Kirstin & Tetlow, Robert J., 2015. "Financial stress and economic dynamics: The transmission of crises," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 100-115.
    24. Mallick, Sushanta K. & Sousa, Ricardo M., 2013. "The real effects of financial stress in the Eurozone," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 1-17.
    25. Illing, Mark & Liu, Ying, 2006. "Measuring financial stress in a developed country: An application to Canada," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 243-265, October.
    26. Gonzalo, Jesus & Martinez, Oscar, 2006. "Large shocks vs. small shocks. (Or does size matter? May be so.)," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 135(1-2), pages 311-347.
    27. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-856, July.
    28. repec:ecb:ecbwps:20111426 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Ben S. Bernanke & Jean Boivin & Piotr Eliasz, 2005. "Measuring the Effects of Monetary Policy: A Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive (FAVAR) Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 120(1), pages 387-422.
    30. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
    31. Hansen, Bruce E, 1996. "Inference When a Nuisance Parameter Is Not Identified under the Null Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(2), pages 413-430, March.
    32. Ine Van Robays, 2012. "Macroeconomic Uncertainty and the Impact of Oil Shocks," CESifo Working Paper Series 3937, CESifo.
    33. Koop, Gary & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Potter, Simon M., 1996. "Impulse response analysis in nonlinear multivariate models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 119-147, September.
    34. Moshirian, Fariborz, 2008. "Globalisation, growth and institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 472-479, April.
    35. Thomas Moser, 2003. "What Is International Financial Contagion?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(2), pages 157-178, July.
    36. Troy Davig & Craig S. Hakkio, 2010. "What is the effect of financial stress on economic activity," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, vol. 95(Q II), pages 35-62.
    37. repec:oup:rfinst:v:26:y::i:1:p:244-285 is not listed on IDEAS
    38. Park, Cyn-Young & Mercado, Rogelio V., 2014. "Determinants of financial stress in emerging market economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 199-224.
    39. Jaccard, Ivan, 2013. "Liquidity constraints, risk premia, and themacroeconomic effects of liquidity shocks," Working Paper Series 1525, European Central Bank.
    40. Elke Hanschel & Pierre Monnin, 2005. "Measuring and forecasting stress in the banking sector: evidence from Switzerland," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Investigating the relationship between the financial and real economy, volume 22, pages 431-49, Bank for International Settlements.
    41. Klomp, Jeroen & de Haan, Jakob, 2009. "Central bank independence and financial instability," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 321-338, December.
    42. Mr. Stephan Danninger & Ms. Irina Tytell & Mr. Ravi Balakrishnan & Mr. Selim A Elekdag, 2009. "The Transmission of Financial Stress from Advanced to Emerging Economies," IMF Working Papers 2009/133, International Monetary Fund.
    43. Apostolakis, George & Papadopoulos, Athanasios P., 2015. "Financial stress spillovers across the banking, securities and foreign exchange markets," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 1-21.
    44. Nathan S. Balke, 2000. "Credit and Economic Activity: Credit Regimes and Nonlinear Propagation of Shocks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(2), pages 344-349, May.
    45. Moser, Thomas, 2003. "What Is International Financial Contagion?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(2), pages 157-178, Summer.
    46. Craig S. Hakkio & William R. Keeton, 2009. "Financial stress: what is it, how can it be measured, and why does it matter?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, vol. 94(Q II), pages 5-50.
    47. Peersman, Gert & Smets, Frank, 2001. "The monetary transmission mechanism in the euro area: more evidence from VAR analysis," Working Paper Series 91, European Central Bank.
    48. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 2003. "Computation and analysis of multiple structural change models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 1-22.
    49. Calza Alessandro & Sousa João, 2006. "Output and Inflation Responses to Credit Shocks: Are There Threshold Effects in the Euro Area?," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(2), pages 1-21, May.
    50. Ivan Alves, 2005. "Sectoral fragility: factors and dynamics," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Investigating the relationship between the financial and real economy, volume 22, pages 450-80, Bank for International Settlements.
    51. Taylor, John B., 1993. "Discretion versus policy rules in practice," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 195-214, December.
    52. Cardarelli, Roberto & Elekdag, Selim & Lall, Subir, 2011. "Financial stress and economic contractions," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 78-97, June.
    53. Apostolakis, George & Papadopoulos, Athanasios P., 2014. "Financial stress spillovers in advanced economies," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 128-149.
    54. Philip Lowe & Claudio Borio, 2002. "Asset prices, financial and monetary stability: exploring the nexus," BIS Working Papers 114, Bank for International Settlements.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Maryam Ahmadi & Niaz Bashiri Behmiri & Matteo Manera, 2020. "The theory of storage in the crude oil futures market, the role of financial conditions," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 40(7), pages 1160-1175, July.
    2. Hoque, Mohammad Enamul & Soo-Wah, Low & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Akhter, Tahmina, 2023. "Time and frequency domain connectedness and spillover among categorical and regional financial stress, gold and bitcoin market," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 85(PA).
    3. Inna Gryshova & Tatyana Shabatura & Stasys Girdzijauskas & Dalia Streimikiene & Remigijus Ciegis & Ingrida Griesiene, 2019. "The Paradox of Value and Economic Bubbles: New Insights for Sustainable Economic Development," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(24), pages 1-17, December.
    4. Dariusz Klimek & Elżbieta Jędrych, 2020. "A Model for the Sustainable Management of Enterprise Capital," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(1), pages 1-13, December.
    5. Andriansyah, Andriansyah & Messinis, George, 2019. "Stock Prices, Exchange Rates and Portfolio Equity Flows: A Toda-Yamamoto Panel Causality Test," MPRA Paper 97992, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Mundra, Sruti & Bicchal, Motilal, 2023. "Asymmetric effects of monetary policy and financial accelerator: Evidence from India," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 27(C).
    7. Niaz Bashiri Behmiri, Maryam Ahmadi, Juha-Pekka Junttila, and Matteo Manera, 2021. "Financial Stress and Basis in Energy Markets," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 5).
    8. Guinea, Laurentiu & Pérez, Rafaela & Ruiz, Jesús, 2024. "Asymmetric effects of financial volatility and volatility-of-volatility shocks on the energy mix," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    9. Lin, Boqiang & Li, Minyang, 2023. "Emerging Industry Development and Information Transmission in Financial Markets: Evidence from China's Renewable Energy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    10. Julius Loermann, 2018. "The Impact of CHF/EUR Exchange Rate Uncertainty on Swiss Exports to the Eurozone: Evidence from a Threshold VAR," FIW Working Paper series 189, FIW, revised Feb 2019.
    11. Zhang, Hongwei & Wang, Peijin, 2021. "Does Bitcoin or gold react to financial stress alike? Evidence from the U.S. and China," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 629-648.
    12. Ozcelebi, Oguzhan, 2020. "Assessing the impacts of financial stress index of developed countries on the exchange market pressure index of emerging countries," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 288-302.
    13. Evgenidis, Anastasios & Salachas, Evangelos, 2019. "Unconventional monetary policy and the credit channel in the euro area," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 185(C).
    14. Liang, Chao & Luo, Qin & Li, Yan & Huynh, Luu Duc Toan, 2023. "Global financial stress index and long-term volatility forecast for international stock markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    15. Alexandros Skouralis, 2021. "Systemic Risk Spillovers Across the EURO Area," Working Papers 326919507, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    16. Julius Loermann, 2021. "The impact of CHF/EUR exchange rate uncertainty on Swiss exports to the Eurozone: evidence from a threshold VAR," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(3), pages 1363-1385, March.
    17. Ramzi Benkraiem & Mondher Bouattour & Emilios Galariotis & Anthony Miloudi, 2021. "Do investors in SMEs herd? Evidence from French and UK equity markets," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 56(4), pages 1619-1637, April.
    18. Gong, Yuting & Li, Kevin X. & Chen, Shu-Ling & Shi, Wenming, 2020. "Contagion risk between the shipping freight and stock markets: Evidence from the recent US-China trade war," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    19. Altınkeski, Buket Kırcı & Cevik, Emrah Ismail & Dibooglu, Sel & Kutan, Ali M., 2022. "Financial stress transmission between the U.S. and the Euro Area," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    20. Mikhail Stolbov & Maria Shchepeleva, 2021. "Macrofinancial linkages in Europe: Evidence from quantile local projections," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(4), pages 5557-5569, October.
    21. Tsagkanos, Athanasios & Argyropoulou, Despoina & Androulakis, Georgios, 2022. "Asymmetric economic effects via the dependence structure of green bonds and financial stress index," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 26(C).
    22. Chen, Wang & Hamori, Shigeyuki & Kinkyo, Takuji, 2019. "Complexity of financial stress spillovers: Asymmetry and interaction effects of institutional quality and foreign bank ownership," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 567-581.
    23. Zhang, Yi & Zhou, Long & Chen, Yajiao & Liu, Fang, 2022. "The contagion effect of jump risk across Asian stock markets during the Covid-19 pandemic," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    24. Apostolakis, Georgios N. & Giannellis, Nikolaos & Papadopoulos, Athanasios P., 2019. "Financial stress and asymmetric shocks transmission within the Eurozone. How fragile is the common monetary policy?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tsagkanos, Athanasios & Evgenidis, Anastasios & Vartholomatou, Konstantina, 2018. "Financial and monetary stability across Euro-zone and BRICS: An exogenous threshold VAR approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 386-393.
    2. Apostolakis, George & Papadopoulos, Athanasios P., 2015. "Financial stress spillovers across the banking, securities and foreign exchange markets," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 1-21.
    3. Park, Cyn-Young & Mercado, Rogelio V., 2014. "Determinants of financial stress in emerging market economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 199-224.
    4. Apostolakis, George N. & Floros, Christos & Gkillas, Konstantinos & Wohar, Mark, 2021. "Financial stress, economic policy uncertainty, and oil price uncertainty," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C).
    5. George Apostolakis & Athanasios P. Papadopoulos, 2019. "Financial Stability, Monetary Stability and Growth: a PVAR Analysis," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 157-178, February.
    6. Tihana Skrinjaric, 2022. "Macroeconomic effects of systemic stress: a rolling spillover index approach," Public Sector Economics, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 46(1), pages 109-140.
    7. Haddou, Samira, 2022. "International financial stress spillovers to bank lending: Do internal characteristics matter?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 83(C).
    8. Baxa, Jaromír & Horváth, Roman & Vašíček, Bořek, 2013. "Time-varying monetary-policy rules and financial stress: Does financial instability matter for monetary policy?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 117-138.
    9. Björn Roye, 2014. "Financial stress and economic activity in Germany," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 41(1), pages 101-126, February.
    10. Mittnik, Stefan & Semmler, Willi, 2013. "The real consequences of financial stress," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1479-1499.
    11. Mikhail V. Oet & John M. Dooley & Stephen J. Ong, 2015. "The Financial Stress Index: Identification of Systemic Risk Conditions," Risks, MDPI, vol. 3(3), pages 1-25, September.
    12. Andisheh Saliminezhad & Pejman Bahramian, 2021. "The role of financial stress in the economic activity: Fresh evidence from a Granger‐causality in quantiles analysis for the UK and Germany," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 1670-1680, April.
    13. Jayantee SAHOO, 2020. "Financial stress index, growth and price stability in India: Some recent evidence," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(622), S), pages 105-124, Spring.
    14. Huotari, Jarkko, 2015. "Measuring financial stress – A country specific stress index for Finland," Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2015, Bank of Finland.
    15. Apostolakis, Georgios N. & Giannellis, Nikolaos & Papadopoulos, Athanasios P., 2019. "Financial stress and asymmetric shocks transmission within the Eurozone. How fragile is the common monetary policy?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
    16. Manfred Kremer, 2016. "Macroeconomic effects of financial stress and the role of monetary policy: a VAR analysis for the euro area," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 105-138, January.
    17. repec:zbw:bofrdp:2015_007 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Harun, Cicilia A. & Taruna, Aditya Anta & Ramdani,, 2021. "Capturing the nonlinear impact in distress state: Enhancing scenario design of stress test," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 265-288.
    19. Huotari, Jarkko, 2015. "Measuring financial stress – A country specific stress index for Finland," Research Discussion Papers 7/2015, Bank of Finland.
    20. Kappler, Marcus & Schleer, Frauke, 2017. "A financially stressed euro area," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel), vol. 11, pages 1-37.
    21. Vašíček, Bořek & Žigraiová, Diana & Hoeberichts, Marco & Vermeulen, Robert & Šmídková, Kateřina & de Haan, Jakob, 2017. "Leading indicators of financial stress: New evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 240-257.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Financial stress; Financial stability; Threshold-VAR; Monetary policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • F42 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - International Policy Coordination and Transmission

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:51:y:2017:i:c:p:69-81. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620166 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.