IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy—Evidence from Swedish industry

  • Brännlund, Runar
  • Lundgren, Tommy
  • Marklund, Per-Olov
Registered author(s):

    We analyze carbon intensity performance at firm level and the effectiveness of the Swedish CO2 tax. Carbon intensity performance is derived from a production technology and measured as changes in the CO2 emission-output production ratio. As one of the first countries to introduce a CO2 tax in 1991, Sweden serves as an appropriate “test bench” for analyzing the effectiveness of climate policy in general. Firm level data from Swedish manufacturing spanning over the period 1990–2004 is used for the analysis. Results show that EP has improved in all the sectors and there is an evidence of decoupling of output production growth and CO2 emissions. Firms' carbon intensity performance responds both to changes in the CO2 tax and fossil fuel price, but is more sensitive to the tax.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 67 (2014)
    Issue (Month): C ()
    Pages: 844-857

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:67:y:2014:i:c:p:844-857
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Diakoulaki, D. & Mandaraka, M., 2007. "Decomposition analysis for assessing the progress in decoupling industrial growth from CO2 emissions in the EU manufacturing sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 636-664, July.
    2. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    3. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    4. Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
    5. Barigozzi, Francesca & Villeneuve, Bertrand, 2006. "The signaling effect of tax policy," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/5402, Paris Dauphine University.
    6. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
    7. Runar Brännlund & Tommy Lundgren, 2010. "Environmental policy and profitability: evidence from Swedish industry," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 12(1), pages 59-78, June.
    8. Subhash C. Ray, 1991. "Resource-Use Efficiency in Public Schools: A Study of Connecticut Data," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(12), pages 1620-1628, December.
    9. Galeotti, Marzio & Lanza, Alessandro & Pauli, Francesco, 2006. "Reassessing the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: A robustness exercise," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 152-163, April.
    10. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Yaisawarng, Suthathip, 1999. "The impact of mergers on credit union service provision," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 367-386, February.
    11. Rolf Färe & Shawna Grosskopf & Carl Pasurka, 2006. "Social responsibility: U.S. power plants 1985–1998," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 259-267, December.
    12. Isik, Ihsan & Hassan, M. Kabir, 2002. "Technical, scale and allocative efficiencies of Turkish banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 719-766, April.
    13. Matthew A. Cole & Robert J R Elliott & Toshihiro Okubo & Ying Zhou, 2012. "The Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Firms: A Spatial Analysis," Keio/Kyoto Joint Global COE Discussion Paper Series 2012-003, Keio/Kyoto Joint Global COE Program.
    14. Ronald Shadbegian & Wayne Gray, 2006. "Assessing multi-dimensional performance: environmental and economic outcomes," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 213-234, December.
    15. Scholtens, Bert & Yurtsever, Cenk, 2012. "Oil price shocks and European industries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1187-1195.
    16. Chilingerian, Jon A., 1995. "Evaluating physician efficiency in hospitals: A multivariate analysis of best practices," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 548-574, February.
    17. Fare, R. & Grosskopf, S. & Hernandez-Sancho, F., 2004. "Environmental performance: an index number approach," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 343-352, December.
    18. Enevoldsen, Martin K. & Ryelund, Anders V. & Andersen, Mikael Skou, 2007. "Decoupling of industrial energy consumption and CO2-emissions in energy-intensive industries in Scandinavia," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 665-692, July.
    19. Chirikos, Thomas N. & Sear, Alan M., 1994. "Technical efficiency and the competitive behavior of hospitals," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 219-227, December.
    20. Ghalwash, Tarek, 2007. "Energy taxes as a signaling device: An empirical analysis of consumer preferences," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 29-38, January.
    21. Ghalwash, Tarek, 2004. "Energy Taxes as a Signaling Device: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Preferences," Umeå Economic Studies 646, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
    22. Lundgren, Tommy & Marklund, Per-Olov & Samakovlis, Eva & Zhou, Wenchao, 2013. "Carbon Prices and Incentives for Technological Development," CERE Working Papers 2013:4, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    23. Stern, David I. & Common, Michael S. & Barbier, Edward B., 1996. "Economic growth and environmental degradation: The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainable development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1151-1160, July.
    24. Kristrom, Bengt & Lundgren, Tommy, 2005. "Swedish CO2-emissions 1900-2010: an exploratory note," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1223-1230, June.
    25. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2007. "Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 31-64, January.
    26. Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu, 2006. "Environmental regulation and the productivity of Japanese manufacturing industries," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 299-312, November.
    27. Zhou, P. & Ang, B.W. & Poh, K.L., 2008. "A survey of data envelopment analysis in energy and environmental studies," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 189(1), pages 1-18, August.
    28. Färe, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna & Pasurka, Carl Jr., 2010. "Toxic releases: An environmental performance index for coal-fired power plants," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 158-165, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:67:y:2014:i:c:p:844-857. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.