IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/eneeco/v98y2021ics0140988321001377.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A general equilibrium model of macroeconomic rebound effect: A broader view

Author

Listed:
  • Rocha, Felipe Freitas da
  • Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de

Abstract

Economists recognize that energy efficiency improvements generate behavioral responses that reduce potential energy savings (rebound effect) and may even increase energy consumption (backfire). Much work has been done to explain rebound economics. Nevertheless, many of the important issues still do not have a clear answer, that is, under which circumstances the rebound is more powerful or weaker and whether the long-run effect is greater or less than the short-run effect. Furthermore, it is still unclear in which situations backfire is definitely a problem. In order to answer these questions, the article expands the Wei (2010) general equilibrium model, including any number of energy services and non-energy inputs and endogenizing the output price. Furthermore, in order to analyze the effects of a neutral technical change on energy consumption, a parameter of non-energy inputs productivity is also included. The analysis corrects some results presented in Wei (2010) and provides several new findings. Regarding the energy-augmenting technical change, the main findings are the importance of the energy supply and the use of more than one energy service in the model for the rebound size. Moreover, in the simplest models, the long-run rebound effect is greater than the short-run effect. Regarding the neutral technical change, it is highlighted that the use of homogeneous production functions generates backfire. Moreover, we find that backfire is definitely a problem in terms of welfare only in situations where energy consumption is based on highly polluting energies and where output is highly energy-intensive.

Suggested Citation

  • Rocha, Felipe Freitas da & Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de, 2021. "A general equilibrium model of macroeconomic rebound effect: A broader view," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:98:y:2021:i:c:s0140988321001377
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2021.105232
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988321001377
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.eneco.2021.105232?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brookes, Len, 1990. "The greenhouse effect: the fallacies in the energy efficiency solution," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 199-201, March.
    2. Lemoine, Derek, 2020. "General equilibrium rebound from energy efficiency innovation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    3. Font Vivanco, David & Kemp, René & van der Voet, Ester, 2016. "How to deal with the rebound effect? A policy-oriented approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 114-125.
    4. Kenneth A. Small & Kurt Van Dender, 2007. "Fuel Efficiency and Motor Vehicle Travel: The Declining Rebound Effect," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 25-52.
    5. Morakinyo O. Adetutu, Anthony J. Glass, and Thomas G. Weyman-Jones, 2016. "Economy-wide Estimates of Rebound Effects: Evidence from Panel Data," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    6. Guerra, Ana-Isabel & Sancho, Ferran, 2010. "Rethinking economy-wide rebound measures: An unbiased proposal," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6684-6694, November.
    7. Saunders, Harry D., 2000. "A view from the macro side: rebound, backfire, and Khazzoom-Brookes," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 439-449, June.
    8. Sorrell, Steve & Dimitropoulos, John, 2008. "The rebound effect: Microeconomic definitions, limitations and extensions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 636-649, April.
    9. Steve Sorrell, 2014. "Energy Substitution, Technical Change and Rebound Effects," Energies, MDPI, vol. 7(5), pages 1-24, April.
    10. Kenneth Gillingham & David Rapson & Gernot Wagner, 2016. "The Rebound Effect and Energy Efficiency Policy," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(1), pages 68-88.
    11. Broberg, Thomas & Berg, Charlotte & Samakovlis, Eva, 2015. "The economy-wide rebound effect from improved energy efficiency in Swedish industries–A general equilibrium analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 26-37.
    12. Stern, David I., 2020. "How large is the economy-wide rebound effect?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    13. Fullerton, Don & Ta, Chi L., 2020. "Costs of energy efficiency mandates can reverse the sign of rebound," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 188(C).
    14. Epstein, Gil S & Spiegel, Uriel, 2000. "A Production Function with an Inferior Input," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 68(5), pages 503-515, September.
    15. Turner, Karen, 2009. "Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 648-666, September.
    16. Lu, Yingying & Liu, Yu & Zhou, Meifang, 2017. "Rebound effect of improved energy efficiency for different energy types: A general equilibrium analysis for China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 248-256.
    17. A. Greening, Lorna & Greene, David L. & Difiglio, Carmen, 2000. "Energy efficiency and consumption -- the rebound effect -- a survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 389-401, June.
    18. Wei, Taoyuan, 2007. "Impact of energy efficiency gains on output and energy use with Cobb-Douglas production function," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2023-2030, April.
    19. Ouyang, Jinlong & Long, Enshen & Hokao, Kazunori, 2010. "Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 5269-5276.
    20. Wei, Taoyuan, 2010. "A general equilibrium view of global rebound effects," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 661-672, May.
    21. Saunders, Harry D. & Tsao, Jeffrey Y., 2012. "Rebound effects for lighting," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 477-478.
    22. Hanley, Nick & McGregor, Peter G. & Swales, J. Kim & Turner, Karen, 2009. "Do increases in energy efficiency improve environmental quality and sustainability?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 692-709, January.
    23. Yan, Zheming & Ouyang, Xiaoling & Du, Kerui, 2019. "Economy-wide estimates of energy rebound effect: Evidence from China's provinces," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 389-401.
    24. Brookes, Leonard, 2000. "Energy efficiency fallacies revisited," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 355-366, June.
    25. Wang, Zhaohua & Han, Bai & Lu, Milin, 2016. "Measurement of energy rebound effect in households: Evidence from residential electricity consumption in Beijing, China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 852-861.
    26. Koesler, Simon & Swales, Kim & Turner, Karen, 2016. "International spillover and rebound effects from increased energy efficiency in Germany," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 444-452.
    27. Allan, Grant & Hanley, Nick & McGregor, Peter & Swales, Kim & Turner, Karen, 2007. "The impact of increased efficiency in the industrial use of energy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for the United Kingdom," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 779-798, July.
    28. Jeroen Bergh, 2011. "Energy Conservation More Effective With Rebound Policy," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 48(1), pages 43-58, January.
    29. Odeck, James & Johansen, Kjell, 2016. "Elasticities of fuel and traffic demand and the direct rebound effects: An econometric estimation in the case of Norway," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 1-13.
    30. Saunders Harry D, 2005. "A Calculator for Energy Consumption Changes Arising from New Technologies," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-35, September.
    31. Gil S. Epstein & Uriel Spiegel, 2000. "A Production Function with an Inferior Input," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 68(5), pages 503-515, September.
    32. Saunders, Harry D., 2000. "Does predicted rebound depend on distinguishing between energy and energy services?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 497-500, June.
    33. J. Daniel Khazzoom, 1980. "Economic Implications of Mandated Efficiency in Standards for Household Appliances," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 21-40.
    34. Richard B. Howarth, 1997. "Energy Efficiency And Economic Growth," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 15(4), pages 1-9, October.
    35. Ghosh, Neal K. & Blackhurst, Michael F., 2014. "Energy savings and the rebound effect with multiple energy services and efficiency correlation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 55-66.
    36. Saunders, Harry D., 2013. "Historical evidence for energy efficiency rebound in 30 US sectors and a toolkit for rebound analysts," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 80(7), pages 1317-1330.
    37. Sorrell, Steve, 2009. "Jevons' Paradox revisited: The evidence for backfire from improved energy efficiency," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1456-1469, April.
    38. Jaume Freire-González & Ignasi Puig-Ventosa, 2015. "Energy Efficiency Policies and the Jevons Paradox," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 5(1), pages 69-79.
    39. Saunders, Harry D., 2008. "Fuel conserving (and using) production functions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2184-2235, September.
    40. Paul E. Brockway & Harry Saunders & Matthew K. Heun & Timothy J. Foxon & Julia K. Steinberger & John R. Barrett & Steve Sorrell, 2017. "Energy Rebound as a Potential Threat to a Low-Carbon Future: Findings from a New Exergy-Based National-Level Rebound Approach," Energies, MDPI, vol. 10(1), pages 1-24, January.
    41. Nathan W. Chan & Kenneth Gillingham, 2015. "The Microeconomic Theory of the Rebound Effect and Its Welfare Implications," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(1), pages 133-159.
    42. Paolo Bertoletti & Giorgio Rampa, 2013. "On inferior inputs and marginal returns," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 109(3), pages 303-313, July.
    43. Dimitropoulos, John, 2007. "Energy productivity improvements and the rebound effect: An overview of the state of knowledge," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 6354-6363, December.
    44. Brookes, L. G., 1978. "Energy policy, the energy price fallacy and the role of nuclear energy in the UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 94-106, June.
    45. Patterson, Murray G, 1996. "What is energy efficiency? : Concepts, indicators and methodological issues," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 377-390, May.
    46. Harry D. Saunders, 2015. "Recent Evidence for Large Rebound: Elucidating the Drivers and their Implications for Climate Change Models," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    47. Wei, Taoyuan & Liu, Yang, 2017. "Estimation of global rebound effect caused by energy efficiency improvement," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 27-34.
    48. Belaïd, Fateh & Bakaloglou, Salomé & Roubaud, David, 2018. "Direct rebound effect of residential gas demand: Empirical evidence from France," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 23-31.
    49. Zhang, Jiangshan & Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia, 2017. "The macroeconomic rebound effect in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 202-212.
    50. Harty D. Saunders, 1992. "The Khazzoom-Brookes Postulate and Neoclassical Growth," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 131-148.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Karen Turner, 2013. ""Rebound" Effects from Increased Energy Efficiency: A Time to Pause and Reflect," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).
    2. Zhang, Jiangshan & Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia, 2017. "The macroeconomic rebound effect in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 202-212.
    3. Brockway, Paul E. & Sorrell, Steve & Semieniuk, Gregor & Heun, Matthew Kuperus & Court, Victor, 2021. "Energy efficiency and economy-wide rebound effects: A review of the evidence and its implications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    4. Chang, Juin-Jen & Wang, Wei-Neng & Shieh, Jhy-Yuan, 2018. "Environmental rebounds/backfires: Macroeconomic implications for the promotion of environmentally-friendly products," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 35-68.
    5. Zhou, Meifang & Liu, Yu & Feng, Shenghao & Liu, Yang & Lu, Yingying, 2018. "Decomposition of rebound effect: An energy-specific, general equilibrium analysis in the context of China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 221(C), pages 280-298.
    6. Lemoine, Derek, 2020. "General equilibrium rebound from energy efficiency innovation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    7. Colmenares, Gloria & Löschel, Andreas & Madlener, Reinhard, 2019. "The rebound effect and its representation in energy and climate models," CAWM Discussion Papers 106, University of Münster, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM).
    8. Stern, David I., 2020. "How large is the economy-wide rebound effect?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    9. Thomas, Brinda A. & Azevedo, Inês L., 2013. "Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for U.S. households with input–output analysis Part 1: Theoretical framework," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 199-210.
    10. Bruns, Stephan B. & Moneta, Alessio & Stern, David I., 2021. "Estimating the economy-wide rebound effect using empirically identified structural vector autoregressions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C).
    11. Wu, Kuei-Yen & Wu, Jung-Hua & Huang, Yun-Hsun & Fu, Szu-Chi & Chen, Chia-Yon, 2016. "Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects by supply-driven input-output model: A case study of Taiwan's industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 115(P1), pages 904-913.
    12. Broberg, Thomas & Berg, Charlotte & Samakovlis, Eva, 2015. "The economy-wide rebound effect from improved energy efficiency in Swedish industries–A general equilibrium analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 26-37.
    13. Böhringer, Christoph & Rivers, Nicholas, 2021. "The energy efficiency rebound effect in general equilibrium," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).
    14. Dahlqvist, Anna & Lundgren, Tommy & Marklund, Per-Olov, 2017. "Assessing the Rebound Effect in Energy Intensive Industries: A Factor Demand Model Approach with Asymmetric Price Response," Working Papers 150, National Institute of Economic Research.
    15. Wen, Fenghua & Ye, Zhengke & Yang, Huaidong & Li, Ke, 2018. "Exploring the rebound effect from the perspective of household: An analysis of China's provincial level," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 345-356.
    16. Yan, Zheming & Ouyang, Xiaoling & Du, Kerui, 2019. "Economy-wide estimates of energy rebound effect: Evidence from China's provinces," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 389-401.
    17. Lu, Yingying & Liu, Yu & Zhou, Meifang, 2017. "Rebound effect of improved energy efficiency for different energy types: A general equilibrium analysis for China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 248-256.
    18. Figge, Frank & Thorpe, Andrea Stevenson, 2019. "The symbiotic rebound effect in the circular economy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 61-69.
    19. Font Vivanco, David & Nechifor, Victor & Freire-González, Jaume & Calzadilla, Alvaro, 2021. "Economy-wide rebound makes UK’s electric car subsidy fall short of expectations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 297(C).
    20. Tugba Somuncu & Christopher Hannum, 2018. "The Rebound Effect of Energy Efficiency Policy in the Presence of Energy Theft," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(12), pages 1-28, December.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:98:y:2021:i:c:s0140988321001377. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.