IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The uneven development of wind power in China: Determinants and the role of supporting policies


  • Xia, Fang
  • Song, Feng


We apply a partial adjustment model to investigate the driving factors of the regional disparity of China's wind power development. We have three major findings. First, similar to many industries, wind power shows an agglomeration effect, that is, existing installed capacity attracts new addition of capacity. Second, demand factors including both local demand, indicated by variables in the local economy, and demand outside the region, indicated by transmission capacity, do not significantly affect the location choice of wind power farms. Lastly, governmental supporting measures have heterogeneous effects on different regions. They are most effective in wind resource rich regions but have little impact in other regions.

Suggested Citation

  • Xia, Fang & Song, Feng, 2017. "The uneven development of wind power in China: Determinants and the role of supporting policies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 278-286.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:67:y:2017:i:c:p:278-286
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2017.08.008

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    2. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler & Jonathan Temple, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Papers 2001-W21, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    3. Hu, Zheng & Wang, Jianhui & Byrne, John & Kurdgelashvili, Lado, 2013. "Review of wind power tariff policies in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 41-50.
    4. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    5. Liu, Yingqi & Kokko, Ari, 2010. "Wind power in China: Policy and development challenges," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5520-5529, October.
    6. Qiu, Yueming & Ortolano, Leonard & David Wang, Yi, 2013. "Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 305-316.
    7. Fang, Yong & Li, Jing & Wang, Mingming, 2012. "Development policy for non-grid-connected wind power in China: An analysis based on institutional change," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 350-358.
    8. Ellison, Glenn & Glaeser, Edward L, 1997. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(5), pages 889-927, October.
    9. Hitaj, Claudia, 2013. "Wind power development in the United States," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 394-410.
    10. Liu, Xuemei, 2013. "The value of holding scarce wind resource—A cause of overinvestment in wind power capacity in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 97-100.
    11. Schmidt, J. & Lehecka, G. & Gass, V. & Schmid, E., 2013. "Where the wind blows: Assessing the effect of fixed and premium based feed-in tariffs on the spatial diversification of wind turbines," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 269-276.
    12. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    13. Yang, Ming & Nguyen, François & De T'Serclaes, Philippine & Buchner, Barbara, 2010. "Wind farm investment risks under uncertain CDM benefit in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1436-1447, March.
    14. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    15. Menz, Fredric C. & Vachon, Stephan, 2006. "The effectiveness of different policy regimes for promoting wind power: Experiences from the states," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1786-1796, September.
    16. Han, Jingyi & Mol, Arthur P.J. & Lu, Yonglong & Zhang, Lei, 2009. "Onshore wind power development in China: Challenges behind a successful story," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2941-2951, August.
    17. Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1996. "R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 630-640, June.
    18. Zhang, Sufang & Andrews-Speed, Philip & Zhao, Xiaoli, 2013. "Political and institutional analysis of the successes and failures of China’s wind power policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 331-340.
    19. He, Gang & Kammen, Daniel M., 2014. "Where, when and how much wind is available? A provincial-scale wind resource assessment for China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 116-122.
    20. Zifa Liu & Wenhua Zhang & Changhong Zhao & Jiahai Yuan, 2015. "The Economics of Wind Power in China and Policy Implications," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(2), pages 1-18, February.
    21. Stephen Bond & Anke Hoeffler, 2001. "GMM Estimation of Empirical Growth Models," Economics Series Working Papers 2001-W21, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    22. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    23. Zhao, Xiaoli & Wang, Feng & Wang, Mei, 2012. "Large-scale utilization of wind power in China: Obstacles of conflict between market and planning," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 222-232.
    24. Zhao, Xiaoli & Zhang, Sufang & Zou, Yasheng & Yao, Jin, 2013. "To what extent does wind power deployment affect vested interests? A case study of the Northeast China Grid," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 814-822.
    25. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2004. "Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.),Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 49, pages 2119-2171, Elsevier.
    26. Qiu, Yueming & Anadon, Laura D., 2012. "The price of wind power in China during its expansion: Technology adoption, learning-by-doing, economies of scale, and manufacturing localization," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 772-785.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Thomas Lauf & Kristina Ek & Erik Gawel & Paul Lehmann & Patrik Söderholm, 2020. "The regional heterogeneity of wind power deployment: an empirical investigation of land-use policies in Germany and Sweden," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 63(4), pages 751-778, March.
    2. Lin, Boqiang & Chen, Yufang, 2019. "Impacts of policies on innovation in wind power technologies in China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 247(C), pages 682-691.
    3. Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2018. "Energy Price Reform in China," ESP: Energy Scenarios and Policy 273368, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    4. Xu, Bin & Lin, Boqiang, 2018. "Assessing the development of China's new energy industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 116-131.
    5. Xia, Fang & Lu, Xi & Song, Feng, 2020. "The role of feed-in tariff in the curtailment of wind power in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    6. Song, Feng & Bi, De & Wei, Chu, 2019. "Market segmentation and wind curtailment: An empirical analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 831-838.
    7. María-Jesús Gutiérrez-Pedrero & María J. Ruiz-Fuensanta & Miguel-Ángel Tarancón, 2020. "Regional Factors Driving the Deployment of Wind Energy in Spain," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(14), pages 1-13, July.
    8. Zhang, Pan, 2019. "Do energy intensity targets matter for wind energy development? Identifying their heterogeneous effects in Chinese provinces with different wind resources," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 968-975.

    More about this item


    Wind power; Agglomeration effect; Feed-in-tariff policy;

    JEL classification:

    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:67:y:2017:i:c:p:278-286. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.