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The costs and benefits of refuge requirements: The case of Bt cotton

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  • Frisvold, George B.
  • Reeves, Jeanne M.

Abstract

Refuge requirements have been the primary regulatory tool to delay pest resistance to Bt crops. This paper presents a simple method to estimate the annual cost of refuges to producers, applying it to Bt cotton. It also examines broader welfare impacts, estimating how Bt cotton acreage restrictions affect producer surplus, consumer surplus, seed supplier profits, and commodity program outlays. The implications of grower adoption behavior -- partial adoption, aggregate adoption, and refuge choice -- for regulatory costs are examined. Empirical examples illustrate how providing multiple refuge options significantly reduces regulatory costs.

Suggested Citation

  • Frisvold, George B. & Reeves, Jeanne M., 2008. "The costs and benefits of refuge requirements: The case of Bt cotton," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 87-97, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:65:y:2008:i:1:p:87-97
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Alexander, Corinne E. & Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & Goodhue, Rachael E., 2003. "Effects of the GM Controversy on Iowa Corn-Soybean Farmers' Acreage Allocation Decisions," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(03), December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jonas Kathage & Manuel Gómez-Barbero & Emilio Rodríguez-Cerezo, 2016. "Framework for assessing the socio-economic impacts of Bt maize cultivation," JRC Working Papers JRC103197, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    2. Frisvold, George, 2010. "Resistance Management and Sustainable Use of Agricultural Biotechnology," 14th ICABR Conference, June 16-18, 2010, Ravello, Italy 188091, International Consortium on Applied Bioeconomy Research (ICABR).
    3. Kouser, Shahzad & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "Impact of Bt cotton on pesticide poisoning in smallholder agriculture: A panel data analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(11), pages 2105-2113, September.
    4. Stefan Ambec & Marion Desquilbet, 2012. "Regulation of a Spatial Externality: Refuges versus Tax for Managing Pest Resistance," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 51(1), pages 79-104, January.

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