A revalidation of the savings–growth nexus in Pakistan
The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between savings and economic growth in Pakistan over the period 1971–2011. The cointegration and the Granger causality tests are adopted to examine the relationship between the variables. The results confirm the existence of long-run equilibrium among the variables of interest. Meanwhile, savings have positively affected economic growth in both the short run and long run. The Granger results also show that savings Granger-cause economic growth. Based upon these findings, we confirm that savings is a catalyst of growth for the Pakistani economy. Additionally, our results seem more likely to support the capital fundamentalists because the long run estimation as well as the Granger causality results also indicates that savings growth can effectively spur economic growth in Pakistan.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
- Pradeep Agrawal & Sahoo Pravakar & Ranjan Kumar Dash, 2010. "Savings Behavior In India: Co-Integration And Causality Evidence," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 55(02), pages 273-295.
- Muhammad Shahbaz & Nadeem Ahmad & Abu Wahid, 2010. "Savings–Investment Correlation and Capital Outflow: The Case of Pakistan," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 17(1), pages 80-97, May.
- Hooi Hooi Lean, 2009. "The domestic savings and economic growth relationship in China," Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(1), pages 5-17, February.
- James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1991.
"A simple estimator of cointegrating vectors in higher order integrated systems,"
Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues
91-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
- Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
- Ramesh Mohan, 2006. "Causal Relationship Between Savings And Economic Growth In Countries With Different Income Levels," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 5(3), pages 1-12.
- Chor Foon Tang & Soo Y. Chua, 2012. "The savings-growth nexus for the Malaysian economy: a view through rolling sub-samples," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(32), pages 4173-4185, November.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991.
"Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "KPSS: RATS procedure to perform KPSS (Kwiatowski, Phillips, Schmidt, and Shin) stationarity test," Statistical Software Components RTS00100, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Dipenrdra Sinha, 1998. "Saving and Economic Growth in Thailand," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 35(2), pages 177-186, December.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tang, Chor Foon, 2009. "Does causality technique matter to savings-growth nexus in Malaysia?," MPRA Paper 38535, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ahmed, Sadiq, 1994. "Explaining Pakistan's high growth performance over the past two decades : can it be sustained ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1341, The World Bank.
- T. W. Swan, 1956. "ECONOMIC GROWTH and CAPITAL ACCUMULATION," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 32(2), pages 334-361, November.
- Anke E. Hoeffler, 2000.
"The Augmented Solow Model and the African Growth Debate,"
CID Working Papers
36, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
- Hoeffler, Anke E, 2002. " The Augmented Solow Model and the African Growth Debate," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 64(2), pages 135-158, May.
- Sinha, Dipendra, 1996.
"Saving and economic growth in India,"
18283, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2009. "Savings and economic growth in South Africa: A multivariate causality test," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 708-718, September.
- Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2008. "Financial depth, savings and economic growth in Kenya: A dynamic causal linkage," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 704-713, July.
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
- Nazrul Islam, 1995. "Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1127-1170.
- MacKinnon, James G, 1996.
"Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 601-618, Nov.-Dec..
- James G. MacKinnon, 1995. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Working Papers 918, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Romer, Paul M, 1986.
"Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
- Muhammad SHAHBAZ & Rana Ejaz Ali KHAN, 2010. "Old Wine in New Bottles: Saving – Growth Nexus: Innovative Accounting Technique in Pakistan," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 7(7(548)), pages 49-60, July.
- Chor Foon Tang & Soo Y Chua, 2009. "The Savings-Growth Nexus in Malaysia: Evidence from Nonparametric Analysis," The IUP Journal of Financial Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(3 & 4), pages 83-94, September.
- Milton Friedman, 1957. "A Theory of the Consumption Function," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie57-1, Enero.
- Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
- Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
- Masih, Rumi & Peters, Sanjay, 2010. "A revisitation of the savings-growth nexus in Mexico," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(3), pages 318-320, June.
- Wai-Wah Cheung, Daniel & Wan-Sing Hung, Bill, 1998. "The international transmission of US, Eurodollar and Asian dollar interest rates: Some empirical evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 77-86, May.
- Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
- Kremers, Jeroen J M & Ericsson, Neil R & Dolado, Juan J, 1992.
"The Power of Cointegration Tests,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 325-348, August.
- Agrawal, Pradeep & Sahoo, Pravakar & Dash, Ranjan Kumar, 2009. "Savings behaviour in South Asia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 208-224.
- Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
- Muscatelli, Vito Antonio & Hurn, A Stan, 1992. " Cointegration and Dynamic Time Series Models," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(1), pages 1-43.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
- Soren Johansen, 2002. "A Small Sample Correction for the Test of Cointegrating Rank in the Vector Autoregressive Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 1929-1961, September.
- King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross & DEC, 1994.
"Capital fundamentalism, economic development, and economic growth,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1285, The World Bank.
- King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1994. "Capital fundamentalism, economic development, and economic growth," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 259-292, June.
- Mavrotas, George & Kelly, Roger, 2001. "Old Wine in New Bottles: Testing Causality between Savings and Growth," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 69(0), pages 97-105, Supplemen.
- Milton Friedman, 1957. "Introduction to "A Theory of the Consumption Function"," NBER Chapters, in: A Theory of the Consumption Function, pages 1-6 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015.
"Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-276, March.
- Maite Alguacil & Ana Cuadros & Vicente Orts, 2004. "Does saving really matter for growth? Mexico (1970-2000)," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(2), pages 281-290.
- Panicos Demetriades & Siong Hook Law, 2006. "Finance, institutions and economic development," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(3), pages 245-260.
- Baharumshah, Ahmad Zubaidi & Thanoon, Marwan A. & Rashid, Salim, 2003. "Saving dynamics in the Asian countries," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 827-845, January.
- Sinha, Dipendra & Sinha, Tapen, 1998. "Cart before the horse? The saving-growth nexus in Mexico," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 43-47, October.
- Hsiao, Cheng, 1981. "Autoregressive modelling and money-income causality detection," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 85-106.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:36:y:2014:i:c:p:370-377. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.