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Redistribution within the tax-benefits system in Austria

Author

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  • Christl, Michael
  • Köppl–Turyna, Monika
  • Lorenz, Hanno
  • Kucsera, Dénes

Abstract

The aim of this study is to analyze redistribution within the Austrian tax-benefits system. In this work, we take a comprehensive view and include not only direct taxation and cash benefits but also indirect taxes and in-kind transfers. We look at two kinds of redistribution: between households belonging to different income groups, and between generations, taking a life-cycle perspective. Our analysis shows that indirect taxes (as understood in previous literature) have a regressive effect on the tax-benefits system. In contrast, in-kind benefits seem to have a progressive effect. To analyze the impact of both, we extend our income concept to include both indirect taxes and in-kind benefits. If we look at the distributional impact, we find that the inequality-enhancing effect of indirect taxes is more than offset by the inequality-reducing effect of in-kind benefits. The Gini coefficient increases from 0.24 to 0.26 due to indirect taxes, but when adding in-kind benefits, the Gini coefficient is reduced to 0.23. The overall effect of both indirect taxes and in-kind benefits is progressive.

Suggested Citation

  • Christl, Michael & Köppl–Turyna, Monika & Lorenz, Hanno & Kucsera, Dénes, 2020. "Redistribution within the tax-benefits system in Austria," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 250-264.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecanpo:v:68:y:2020:i:c:p:250-264
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eap.2020.09.011
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Tax-benefits model; EUROMOD; Welfare state; Austria; In-kind benefits;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution

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