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GINI DP 28: The impact of indirect taxes and imputed rent on inequality: A comparison with cash transfers and direct taxes in five EU countries

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  • Francesco Figari

    () (University of Insubria)

  • Paulus, A. (Alari)

Abstract

This paper examines the redistributive impact of imputed rent (private and public) and indirect taxes (value added tax and excises), comparing this with the effects of cash transfers and direct taxes in five EU countries. The extended income concept, taking into account both imputed rent and indirect taxes, provides a more reliable picture of inequality differences across countries. Our results show that indirect taxes have a regressive effect with respect to income in all countries considered but always smaller in magnitude than other tax-benefit instruments. Imputed rent reduces overall inequality in particular where the prevalence of individuals living in own accommodation is high even among the poorest (Greece) and where the contribution of the public imputed rent is large (the UK).

Suggested Citation

  • Francesco Figari & Paulus, A. (Alari), 2012. "GINI DP 28: The impact of indirect taxes and imputed rent on inequality: A comparison with cash transfers and direct taxes in five EU countries," GINI Discussion Papers 28, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:aia:ginidp:28
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Dóra Benedek & Orsolya Lelkes, 2011. "The Distributional Implications of Income Under‐Reporting in Hungary," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 32(4), pages 539-560, December.
    2. Atkinson, Tony & Cantillon, Bea & Marlier, Eric & Nolan, Brian, 2002. "Social Indicators: The EU and Social Inclusion," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199253494.
    3. Atkinson, A. B. & Stiglitz, J. E., 1976. "The design of tax structure: Direct versus indirect taxation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 55-75.
    4. Alan J. Auerbach, 2006. "The Choice Between Income and Consumption Taxes: A Primer," NBER Working Papers 12307, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Aaberge, Rolf & Bhuller, Manudeep & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne, 2010. "The distributional impact of public services when needs differ," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(9-10), pages 549-562, October.
    6. Aaberge, Rolf & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne & Østensen, Marit, 2008. "The Impact of Local Public Services and Geographical Cost of Living Differences on Poverty Estimates," IZA Discussion Papers 3686, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. André Decoster & Jason Loughrey & Cathal O'Donoghue & Dirk Verwerft, 2010. "How regressive are indirect taxes? A microsimulation analysis for five European countries," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 326-350.
    8. Callan, Tim & Leventi, Chrysa & Levy, Horacio & Matsaganis, Manos & Paulus, Alari & Sutherland, Holly, 2011. "The distributional effects of austerity measures: a comparison of six EU countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/11, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Oliver Hümbelin, 2016. "Ungleichheit und Umverteilung über das Steuersystem. Eine Analyse der Verteilungseffekte von direkten Steuern und steuerlichen Abzügen mit Steuerdaten des Kantons Aargau (2001-2011)," University of Bern Social Sciences Working Papers 23, University of Bern, Department of Social Sciences.
    2. Olympia Bover & José María Casado & Esteban García-Miralles & Roberto Ramos & José María Labeaga, 2017. "Microsimulation tools for the evaluation of fiscal policy reforms at the Banco de España," Occasional Papers 1707, Banco de España;Occasional Papers Homepage.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Imputed rent; indirect taxes; European Union; household income; microsimulation; EUROMOD. JEL: C81; H23; D63;

    JEL classification:

    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • D - Microeconomics

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