Child fostering in Africa: When labor and schooling motives may coexist
The paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding purposive child fostering in Africa, whereby a non-orphaned child is sent to live temporarily with relatives. In the model, adults decide whether to foster in or out a child in conjunction with other household choices, e.g. own time allocation between market and non-market activities, children's amount of work, and schooling. By allowing for positive externalities from fostering, and thus asymmetric motives for fostering in (labor) and out (human capital), the proposed framework predicts that school-age children are sent to better-off households and that some families may foster in and out simultaneously. The model identifies the conditions under which all actors involved, children included, may benefit from fostering arrangements, but also points to situations where fostering may become an opportunity to marginalize a subset of children. The paper aims to provide a sound theoretical foundation that sheds light on why there exists mixed empirical evidence on the effects of fostering on children's well being, and cautions against demonizing non-parent residence as unequivocally detrimental to children.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Richard Akresh, 2005.
"Risk, Network Quality, and Family Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso,"
902, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Akresh, Richard, 2005. "Risk, Network Quality, and Family Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso," IZA Discussion Papers 1471, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Martha Ainsworth & Kathleen Beegle & Godlike Koda, 2005. "The Impact of Adult Mortality and Parental Deaths on Primary Schooling in North-Western Tanzania," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(3), pages 412-439.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Stark, Oded, 1987.
"Consumption Smoothing, Migration and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India,"
7515, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Stark, Oded, 1989. "Consumption Smoothing, Migration, and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 905-26, August.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1984.
"Specific Experience, Household Structure and Intergenerational Transfers: Farm Family Land and Labor Arrangements in Developing Countries,"
8432, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Mark R. Rosenzweig & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 1985. "Specific Experience, Household Structure, and Intergenerational Transfers: Farm Family Land and Labor Arrangements in Developing Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 100(Supplemen), pages 961-987.
- L.Guarcello & S.Lyon & F.Rosati, 2006. "Child labour and Education for All: an issue paper," UCW Working Paper 19, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Blunch, Niels-Hugo & Verner, Dorthe, 2001.
"Revisiting the Link Between Poverty and Child Labor: The Ghanaian Experience,"
CLS Working Papers
01-3, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
- Blunch, Niels-Hugo & Verner, Dorte, 2000. "Revisiting the link between poverty and child labor - the Ghanaian experience," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2488, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999.
"Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2116, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- P. Deb & F. Rosati, 2004.
"Estimating the effect of fertility decisions on child labour and schooling,"
UCW Working Paper
30, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- P.Deb & F.Rosati, 2004. "Estimating the Effect of Fertility Decisions on Child Labour and Schooling," UCW Working Paper 4, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Partha Deb & Furio Rosati, 2003. "Estimating the Effect of Fertility Decisions on Child Labor and Schooling," Economics Working Paper Archive at Hunter College 211, Hunter College Department of Economics.
- M.Biggeri & L.Guarcello & S.Lyon & F.Rosati, 2003. "The Puzzle of 'Idle' Children: Neither in School nor performing Economic Activity: Evidence from six Countries," UCW Working Paper 5, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
- Ranjan Ray, 2000.
"Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
- Ray, R., 1998. "Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study," Papers 1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Andvig, Jen Christopher, 2001. "Family - controlled child labor in Sub-Saharan Africa - a survey of research," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 24086, The World Bank.
- Kalanidhi Subbarao & Diane Coury, 2004. "Reaching Out to Africa's Orphans : A Framework for Public Action," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14909, July.
- Paul Bennell, 2005. "The Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on the Schooling of Orphans and Other Directly Affected Children in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(3), pages 467-488.
- Richard Akresh, 2004.
"Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso,"
897, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Akresh, Richard, 2004. "Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso," IZA Discussion Papers 1379, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jensen, P. & Nielsen, H.S., 1996.
"Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia,"
96-14, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
- Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997. "Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
- Grootaert, Christiaan, 1998. "Child labor in Cote d'Ivoire: incidence and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1905, The World Bank.
- Castle, Sarah E., 1995. "Child fostering and children's nutritional outcomes in rural Mali: The role of female status in directing child transfers," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 679-693, March.
- Ainsworth, Martha & Filmer, Deon, 2002. "Poverty, AIDS, and children's schooling - a targeting dilemma," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2885, The World Bank.
- Engle, Patrice L. & Castle, Sarah & Menon, Purnima, 1996. "Child development: Vulnerability and resilience," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 621-635, September.
- Iversen, Vegard, 2002. "Autonomy in Child Labor Migrants," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 817-834, May.
- Binswanger, Hans P & McIntire, John, 1987. "Behavioral and Material Determinants of Production Relations in Land-Abundant Tropical Agriculture," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 73-99, October.
- Frederick J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Cinderella Goes to School: The Effects of Child Fostering on School Enrollment in South Africa," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(3).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:deveco:v:88:y:2009:i:1:p:157-170. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.