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Estimating High Dimensional Covariance Matrices and its Applications

Author

Listed:
  • Jushan Bai

    (Department of Economics, Columbia University
    CEMA, Central University of Finance and Economics)

  • Shuzhong Shi

    (Department of Finance, Guanghua School of Management)

Abstract

Estimating covariance matrices is an important part of portfolio selection, risk management, and asset pricing. This paper reviews the recent development in estimating high dimensional covariance matrices, where the number of variables can be greater than the number of observations. The limitations of the sample covariance matrix are discussed. Several new approaches are presented, including the shrinkage method, the observable and latent factor method, the Bayesian approach, and the random matrix theory approach. For each method, the construction of covariance matrices is given. The relationships among these methods are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Jushan Bai & Shuzhong Shi, 2011. "Estimating High Dimensional Covariance Matrices and its Applications," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 12(2), pages 199-215, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:cuf:journl:y:2011:v:12:i:2:p:199-215
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Efthymios G. Tsionas, 2014. "On modeling banking risk," Working Papers 183, Bank of Greece.
    2. Hannart, Alexis & Naveau, Philippe, 2014. "Estimating high dimensional covariance matrices: A new look at the Gaussian conjugate framework," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 149-162.
    3. repec:eee:ejores:v:266:y:2018:i:1:p:371-390 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Bodnar, Taras & Parolya, Nestor & Schmid, Wolfgang, 2018. "Estimation of the global minimum variance portfolio in high dimensions," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 266(1), pages 371-390.
    5. Yuki Ikeda & Tatsuya Kubokawa & Muni S. Srivastava, 2015. "Comparison of Linear Shrinkage Estimators of a Large Covariance Matrix in Normal and Non-normal Distributions," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-970, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    6. Tsionas, Mike G., 2016. "Parameters measuring bank risk and their estimation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 250(1), pages 291-304.
    7. Zhongzhi Lawrence He, 2018. "Generalized Information Ratio," Papers 1803.01381, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2018.
    8. Jianqing Fan & Yuan Liao & Martina Mincheva, 2013. "Large covariance estimation by thresholding principal orthogonal complements," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 75(4), pages 603-680, September.
    9. Taras Bodnar & Arjun K. Gupta & Nestor Parolya, 2013. "Optimal Linear Shrinkage Estimator for Large Dimensional Precision Matrix," Papers 1308.0931, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2014.
    10. Dou, Baojun & Parrella, Maria Lucia & Yao, Qiwei, 2016. "Generalized Yule–Walker estimation for spatio-temporal models with unknown diagonal coefficients," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 194(2), pages 369-382.
    11. Taras Bodnar & Solomiia Dmytriv & Nestor Parolya & Wolfgang Schmid, 2017. "Tests for the weights of the global minimum variance portfolio in a high-dimensional setting," Papers 1710.09587, arXiv.org, revised Nov 2017.
    12. Soloveychik, I. & Trushin, D., 2016. "Gaussian and robust Kronecker product covariance estimation: Existence and uniqueness," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 92-113.
    13. Laurent Callot & Anders B. Kock & Marcelo C. Medeiros, 2014. "Estimation and Forecasting of Large Realized Covariance Matrices and Portfolio Choice," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-147/III, Tinbergen Institute.
    14. Bodnar, Taras & Mazur, Stepan & Parolya, Nestor, 2017. "Central limit theorems for functionals of large sample covariance matrix and mean vector in matrix-variate location mixture of normal distributions," Working Papers 2017:5, Örebro University, School of Business.
    15. Tatsuya Kubokawa & Akira Inoue, 2012. "Estimation of Covariance and Precision Matrices in High Dimension," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-855, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    16. Bodnar, Taras & Gupta, Arjun K. & Parolya, Nestor, 2016. "Direct shrinkage estimation of large dimensional precision matrix," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 223-236.
    17. Ikeda, Yuki & Kubokawa, Tatsuya & Srivastava, Muni S., 2016. "Comparison of linear shrinkage estimators of a large covariance matrix in normal and non-normal distributions," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 95-108.
    18. Bodnar, Taras & Gupta, Arjun K. & Parolya, Nestor, 2014. "On the strong convergence of the optimal linear shrinkage estimator for large dimensional covariance matrix," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 215-228.
    19. Dou, Baojun & Parrella, Maria Lucia & Yao, Qiwei, 2016. "Generalized Yule–Walker estimation for spatio-temporal models with unknown diagonal coefficients," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 67151, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    20. Gasser, Stephan M. & Rammerstorfer, Margarethe & Weinmayer, Karl, 2017. "Markowitz revisited: Social portfolio engineering," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 258(3), pages 1181-1190.
    21. Bai, Jushan & Zhou, Guofu, 2015. "Fama–MacBeth two-pass regressions: Improving risk premia estimates," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 31-40.
    22. Tsubasa Ito & Tatsuya Kubokawa, 2015. "Linear Ridge Estimator of High-Dimensional Precision Matrix Using Random Matrix Theory ," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-995, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    23. Dante Amengual & Luca Repetto, 2014. "Testing a Large Number of Hypotheses in Approximate Factor Models," Working Papers wp2014_1410, CEMFI.
    24. Tatsuya Kubokawa & Muni S. Srivastava, 2013. "Optimal Ridge-type Estimators of Covariance Matrix in High Dimension," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-906, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Factor analysis; Principal components; Singular value decomposition; Random matrix theory; Empirical Bayes; Shrinkage method; Optimal portfolios; CAPM; APT; GMM;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C38 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Classification Methdos; Cluster Analysis; Principal Components; Factor Analysis

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