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Noncausal Autoregressions for Economic Time Series


  • Lanne Markku

    (University of Helsinki)

  • Saikkonen Pentti

    (University of Helsinki)


This paper is concerned with univariate noncausal autoregressive models and their potential usefulness in economic applications. In these models, future errors are predictable, indicating that they can be used to empirically approach rational expectations models with nonfundamental solutions. In the previous theoretical literature, nonfundamental solutions have typically been represented by noninvertible moving average models. However, noncausal autoregressive and noninvertible moving average models closely approximate each other, and therefore, the former provide a viable and practically convenient alternative. We show how the parameters of a noncausal autoregressive model can be estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and derive related test procedures. Because noncausal autoregressive models cannot be distinguished from conventional causal autoregressive models by second order properties or Gaussian likelihood, a model selection procedure is proposed. As an empirical application, we consider modeling the U.S. inflation which, according to our results, exhibits purely forward-looking dynamics.

Suggested Citation

  • Lanne Markku & Saikkonen Pentti, 2011. "Noncausal Autoregressions for Economic Time Series," Journal of Time Series Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(3), pages 1-32, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:jtsmet:v:3:y:2011:i:3:n:2

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fabio Canova, 2007. "Bayesian Time Series and DSGE Models, from Methods for Applied Macroeconomic Research," Introductory Chapters,in: Methods for Applied Macroeconomic Research Princeton University Press.
    2. Gali, Jordi & Gertler, Mark, 1999. "Inflation dynamics: A structural econometric analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 195-222, October.
    3. Lanne, Markku & Luoto, Jani & Saikkonen, Pentti, 2012. "Optimal forecasting of noncausal autoregressive time series," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 623-631.
    4. Andrews, Beth & Davis, Richard A. & Jay Breidt, F., 2006. "Maximum likelihood estimation for all-pass time series models," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 97(7), pages 1638-1659, August.
    5. West, Kenneth D, 1996. "Asymptotic Inference about Predictive Ability," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1067-1084, September.
    6. Lanne, Markku & Saikkonen, Pentti, 2013. "Noncausal Vector Autoregression," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(03), pages 447-481, June.
    7. Andrews, Donald W K & Chen, Hong-Yuan, 1994. "Approximately Median-Unbiased Estimation of Autoregressive Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(2), pages 187-204, April.
    8. Stephen G. Cecchetti & Guy Debelle, 2006. "Has the inflation process changed?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 21(46), pages 311-352, April.
    9. White,Halbert, 1996. "Estimation, Inference and Specification Analysis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521574464, March.
    10. Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 2002. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 134-144, January.
    11. Rongning Wu & Richard A. Davis, 2010. "Least absolute deviation estimation for general autoregressive moving average time-series models," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(2), pages 98-112, March.
    12. Fabio Canova, 2007. "DSGE Models, Solutions, and Approximations, from Methods for Applied Macroeconomic Research," Introductory Chapters,in: Methods for Applied Macroeconomic Research Princeton University Press.
    13. Kenneth Kasa & Todd B. Walker & Charles H. Whiteman, 2006. "Asset Prices in a Time Series Model with Perpetually Disparately Informed, Competitive Traders," Caepr Working Papers 2006-010, Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Economics Department, Indiana University Bloomington.
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    JEL classification:

    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes


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