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Does Frustration Lead to Violence? Evidence from the Swedish Hooligan Scene


  • Mikael Priks


Sport-related violence is widespread. Yet, there is a poor understanding of what factors trigger hooligans to become unruly. In this paper I test the so called frustration-aggression hypothesis, which holds that thwarted expectations from a reference point tend to lead to violent behavior. I use unique data on hooligan violence in Sweden. I find that frustration, generated by a team's bad performance, indeed leads to unruly supporter behavior. A one-position drop in the soccer league leads to approximately 5 percent more unruly behavior by the team's supporters. The analysis helps policy makers in their endeavors to reduce group-related violence. Copyright © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd..

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  • Mikael Priks, 2010. "Does Frustration Lead to Violence? Evidence from the Swedish Hooligan Scene," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(3), pages 450-460, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:kyklos:v:63:y:2010:i:3:p:450-460

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    Cited by:

    1. Cornelissen, Thomas & Himmler, Oliver & Koenig, Tobias, 2013. "Fairness spillovers—The case of taxation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 164-180.
    2. Friehe, Tim & Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah, 2017. "Self-control and crime revisited: Disentangling the effect of self-control on risk taking and antisocial behavior," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 23-32.
    3. Munyo, Ignacio & Rossi, Martín A., 2013. "Frustration, euphoria, and violent crime," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 136-142.
    4. Friehe, Tim & Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah, 2014. "Crime and Self-Control Revisited: Disentangling the Effect of Self-Control on Risk and Social Preferences," IZA Discussion Papers 8109, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Jauernig, Johanna & Uhl, Matthias & Luetge, Christoph, 2016. "Competition-induced punishment of winners and losers: Who is the target?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 13-25.
    6. Antony W. Dnes & Nuno Garoupa, 2010. "Behavior, Human Capital and the Formation of Gangs," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(4), pages 517-529, November.
    7. Alex Dickson & Colin Jennings & Gary Koop, 2016. "Domestic Violence and Football in Glasgow: Are Reference Points Relevant?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 78(1), pages 1-21, February.
    8. Daniel Montolio & Simón Planells-Struse, 2015. "Measuring the negative externalities of a private leisure activity: hooligans and pickpockets around the stadium," Working Papers 2015/15, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    9. repec:edn:sirdps:428 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Ignacio Munyo, 2014. "Entertainment and Crime," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(3), pages 391-397, August.

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