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Liquidity Cycles and Make/Take Fees in Electronic Markets

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  • THIERRY FOUCAULT
  • OHAD KADAN
  • EUGENE KANDEL

Abstract

We develop a model of trading in securities markets with two specialized sides: traders posting quotes ("market makers") and traders hitting quotes ("market takers"). Liquidity cycles emerge naturally, as the market moves from phases with high liquidity to phases with low liquidity. Traders monitor the market to seize profit opportunities. Complementarities in monitoring decisions generate multiplicity of equilibria: one with high liquidity and another with no liquidity. The trading rate depends on the allocation of the trading fee between each side and the maximal trading rate is typically achieved with asymmetric fees. The difference in the fee charged on market-makers and the fee charged on market-takers ("the make-take spread") increases in (i) the tick-size, (ii) the ratio of the size of the market-making side to the size of the market-taking side, and (iii) the ratio of monitoring costs for market-takers to monitoring costs for market-makers. The model yields several empirical implications regarding the trading rate, the duration between quotes and trades, the bid-ask spread, and the effect of algorithmic trading on these variables.
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Suggested Citation

  • Thierry Foucault & Ohad Kadan & Eugene Kandel, 2013. "Liquidity Cycles and Make/Take Fees in Electronic Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(1), pages 299-341, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:68:y:2013:i:1:p:299-341 DOI: j.1540-6261.2012.01801.x
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    Cited by:

    1. Yergeau, Gabriel, 2016. "Profitability and Market Quality of High Frequency Market-makers: An Empirical Investigation," Working Papers 16-3, HEC Montreal, Canada Research Chair in Risk Management.
    2. Thomas Johann & Erik Theissen, 2013. "Liquidity measures," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Empirical Finance, chapter 10, pages 238-255 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Scholtus, Martin & van Dijk, Dick & Frijns, Bart, 2014. "Speed, algorithmic trading, and market quality around macroeconomic news announcements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 89-105.
    4. Jean-Edouard Colliard & Thierry Foucault, 2012. "Trading Fees and Efficiency in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(11), pages 3389-3421.
    5. Caglio, Cecilia & Mayhew, Stewart, 2016. "Equity trading and the allocation of market data revenue," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 97-111.
    6. Gozluklu, Arie E., 2016. "Pre-trade transparency and informed trading: Experimental evidence on undisclosed orders," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 91-115.
    7. Duong, Huu Nhan & Kalev, Petko S., 2014. "Anonymity and the Information Content of the Limit Order Book," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 205-219.
    8. Yacine Aït-Sahalia & Mehmet Saglam, 2013. "High Frequency Traders: Taking Advantage of Speed," NBER Working Papers 19531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Albert J. Menkveld & Marius A. Zoican, 2014. "Need for Speed? Exchange Latency and Liquidity," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-097/IV, Tinbergen Institute.
    10. Conrad, Jennifer & Wahal, Sunil & Xiang, Jin, 2015. "High-frequency quoting, trading, and the efficiency of prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(2), pages 271-291.
    11. OUATTARA, Aboudou, 2016. "Impact of the transition to continous trading on emerging financial market's liquidity : Case study of the West Africa Regional Exchange Market (BRVM)," MPRA Paper 75391, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Thierry Foucault & Roman Kozhan & Wing Wah Tham, 2017. "Toxic Arbitrage," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, pages 1053-1094.
    13. Marios Panayides & Barbara Rindi & Ingrid M. Werner, 2017. "Trading Fees and Intermarket Competition," Working Papers 595, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    14. Hans Degryse & Frank de Jong & Vincent van Kervel, 2015. "The Impact of Dark Trading and Visible Fragmentation on Market Quality," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 19(4), pages 1587-1622.
    15. Chen, Linda H. & Dyl, Edward A. & Jiang, George J. & Juneja, Januj A., 2015. "Risk, illiquidity or marketability: What matters for the discounts on private equity placements?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 41-50.
    16. Cantillon, Estelle & Yin, Pai-Ling, 2011. "Competition between exchanges: A research agenda," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 329-336, May.
    17. Rakkestad, Ketil & Skjeltorp, Johannes & Ødegaard, Bernt Arne, 2012. "The liquidity of the Secondary Market for Debt Securities in Norway," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2012/12, University of Stavanger.
    18. Bruno Biais & Thierry Foucault, 2014. "HFT and Market Quality," Bankers, Markets & Investors, ESKA Publishing, issue 128, pages 5-19, January-F.
    19. Murray, Hamish & Pham, Thu Phuong & Singh, Harminder, 2016. "Latency reduction and market quality: The case of the Australian Stock Exchange," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 257-265.
    20. Chakrabarty, Bidisha & Moulton, Pamela C., 2012. "Earnings announcements and attention constraints: The role of market design," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 612-634.
    21. Vincent Maurin, 2016. "Liquidity Fluctuations in Over the Counter Markets," 2016 Meeting Papers 218, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    22. repec:eee:riibaf:v:41:y:2017:i:c:p:158-171 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. repec:kap:annfin:v:13:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10436-017-0305-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Cecilia Caglio & Stewart Mayhew, 2012. "Equity trading and the allocation of market data revenue," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-65, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    25. Dugast, J., 2013. "Limited attention and news arrival in limit order markets," Working papers 449, Banque de France.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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