Job Loss and the Fraying of the Implicit Employment Contract
Most workers have one employment contract that is explicit and another one that is implicit. The explicit employment contract specifies working hours, compensation, and job tasks. The implicit contract involves expectations about the extent to which the employment relationship is likely to continue over time. Will the firms will seek to avoid mass layoffs unless or until absolutely necessary? Will firms cushion the wages and compensation of employees to some extent from broad swings in the economy? Will employees show some degree of loyalty to the firm? This paper will argue that, along a number of dimensions, the nature of the worker-firm employment relationship may have changed substantially in recent years -- a group of changes that as a whole have negatively affected the lives of workers and produced modest, if any, benefits for firms. If employers have become less involved with cushioning the blow of unemployment and avoiding layoffs where possible, then public policy might have a role to play in spreading the burden of a down labor market so that the burden is not borne so heavily by those who lose their jobs entirely.
Volume (Year): 23 (2009)
Issue (Month): 4 (Fall)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: https://www.aeaweb.org/jep/|
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: https://www.aeaweb.org/subscribe.html|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ruhm, Christopher J, 1991. "Are Workers Permanently Scarred by Job Displacements?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 319-324, March.
- Martin N. Baily & Eric J. Bartelsman & John Haltiwanger, 1994.
"Downsizing and productivity growth: myth or reality?,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
94-7, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Baily, Martin Neil & Bartelsman, Eric J & Haltiwanger, John, 1996. "Downsizing and Productivity Growth: Myth or Reality?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 259-278, August.
- Martin Neil Baily & Eric J. Bartelsman & John Haltiwanger, 1994. "Downsizing and Productivity Growth: Myth or Reality?," NBER Working Papers 4741, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Haltiwanger & Martin N Baily & Eric J Bartelsman, 1994. "Downsizing and Productivity Growth: Myth or Reality?," Working Papers 94-4, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Dial, Jay & Murphy, Kevin J., 1995. "Incentives, downsizing, and value creation at General Dynamics," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 261-314, March.
- Chan Sewin & Stevens Ann H, 2004.
"How Does Job Loss Affect the Timing of Retirement?,"
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy,
De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-26, May.
- Sewin Chan & Ann Huff Stevens, 2002. "How Does Job Loss Affect the Timing of Retirement?," NBER Working Papers 8780, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jacobson, Louis S & LaLonde, Robert J & Sullivan, Daniel G, 1993.
"Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 83(4), pages 685-709, September.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel G. Sullivan, 1992. "Earnings losses of displaced workers," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 92-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel Sullivan, 1992. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 92-11, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
- Kenneth A. Couch & Dana W. Placzek, 2010. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers Revisited," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(1), pages 572-589, March.
- Marianne Bertrand, 1999.
"From the Invisible Handshake to the Invisible Hand? How Import Competition Changes the Employment Relationship,"
NBER Working Papers
6900, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand, 2004. "From the Invisible Handshake to the Invisible Hand? How Import Competition Changes the Employment Relationship," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(4), pages 723-766, October.
- David H. Autor, 2001.
"Why Do Temporary Help Firms Provide Free General Skills Training?,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1409-1448.
- David H. Autor, 2000. "Why Do Temporary Help Firms Provide Free General Skills Training?," NBER Working Papers 7637, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neal, Derek, 1995. "Industry-Specific Human Capital: Evidence from Displaced Workers," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(4), pages 653-677, October.
- Martin Browning & Anne Moller Dano & Eskil Heinesen, 2006. "Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(10), pages 1061-1075.
- Daniel G. Sullivan & Till von Wachter, 2006.
"Mortality, mass-layoffs, and career outcomes: an analysis using administrative data,"
Working Paper Series
WP-06-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Daniel Sullivan & Till von Wachter, 2007. "Mortality, Mass-Layoffs, and Career Outcomes: An Analysis using Administrative Data," NBER Working Papers 13626, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary Charness & David I. Levine, 2000.
"When are Layoffs Acceptable? Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment,"
Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(3), pages 381-400, April.
- Gary Charness & David I. Levine, 1999. "When are layoffs acceptable? Evidence from a quasi-experiment," Economics Working Papers 369, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Charness, Gary B & Levine, David I. I., 2000. "When Are Layoffs Acceptable? Evidence From A Quasi-Experiment," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt4vs7h4hh, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
- Marcus Eliason & Donald Storrie, 2006. "Lasting or Latent Scars? Swedish Evidence on the Long-Term Effects of Job Displacement," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(4), pages 831-856, October.
- Henry S. Farber, 1997. "The Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995," Working Papers 761, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Hallock, Kevin F, 1998. "Layoffs, Top Executive Pay, and Firm Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 711-723, September.
- A. Craig MacKinlay, 1997. "Event Studies in Economics and Finance," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 13-39, March.
- Stevens, Ann Huff, 1997. "Persistent Effects of Job Displacement: The Importance of Multiple Job Losses," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 165-188, January.
- David H. Autor, 2003. "Outsourcing at Will: The Contribution of Unjust Dismissal Doctrine to the Growth of Employment Outsourcing," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 1-42, January.
- Peter Cappelli, 2000. "Examining the Incidence of Downsizing and Its Effect on Establishment Performance," NBER Working Papers 7742, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:23:y:2009:i:4:p:69-93. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros)or (Michael P. Albert)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.