IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/aea/aejmac/v5y2013i1p135-67.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

On the Real Effects of Bank Bailouts: Micro Evidence from Japan

Author

Listed:
  • Mariassunta Giannetti
  • Andrei Simonov

Abstract

Exploiting the Japanese banking crisis of the 1990s as a laboratory, we investigate the effects of bank bailouts on the supply of credit and the performance of banks’ clients. Our findings indicate that the size of capital injections relative to the initial financial condition of banks is crucial for the success of bank bailouts. Capital injections that are large enough to reestablish bank capital requirements increase the supply of credit and spur investment. In contrast, not only do capital injections that are too small fail to increase the supply of credit, but they also encourage the evergreening of nonperforming loans. (JEL E44, G21, G28, G32, G34)

Suggested Citation

  • Mariassunta Giannetti & Andrei Simonov, 2013. "On the Real Effects of Bank Bailouts: Micro Evidence from Japan," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 135-167, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aejmac:v:5:y:2013:i:1:p:135-67
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/mac.5.1.135
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/mac.5.1.135
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/aej/mac/data/2011-0055_data.zip
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to AEA members and institutional subscribers.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 2005. "Unnatural Selection: Perverse Incentives and the Misallocation of Credit in Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1144-1166, September.
    2. Madsen, Robert, 2004. "What Went Wrong: Aggregate Demand, Structural Reform, and the Politics of 1990s Japan," UCAIS Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, Working Paper Series qt4xk937q7, UCAIS Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, UC Berkeley.
    3. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S., 2001. "Determinants of the Japan premium: actions speak louder than words," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 283-305, April.
    4. Campello, Murillo & Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2010. "The real effects of financial constraints: Evidence from a financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 470-487, September.
    5. Hoshi, Takeo & Kashyap, Anil K, 2010. "Will the U.S. bank recapitalization succeed? Eight lessons from Japan," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 398-417, September.
    6. Scholes, Myron & Williams, Joseph, 1977. "Estimating betas from nonsynchronous data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-327, December.
    7. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2000. "A Theory of Bank Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2431-2465, December.
    8. Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1990. "The role of banks in reducing financial distress in Japan," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 134, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    9. Giannetti, Mariassunta, 2007. "Financial liberalization and banking crises: The role of capital inflows and lack of transparency," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 32-63, January.
    10. Daniel Paravisini, 2008. "Local Bank Financial Constraints and Firm Access to External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2161-2193, October.
    11. Jie Gan, 2007. "The Real Effects of Asset Market Bubbles: Loan- and Firm-Level Evidence of a Lending Channel," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(6), pages 1941-1973, November.
    12. Bank for International Settlements, 2001. "The financial crisis in Japan during the 1990s: how the Bank of Japan responded and the lessons learnt," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 06, July.
    13. Gibson, Michael S, 1995. "Can Bank Health Affect Investment? Evidence from Japan," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 281-308, July.
    14. Kaplan, Steven N. & Minton, Bernadette A., 1994. "Appointments of outsiders to Japanese boards: Determinants and implications for managers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 225-258, October.
    15. Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Atif Mian, 2008. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1413-1442, September.
    16. Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C. & Michalsen, Dag, 2003. "Firms and their distressed banks: lessons from the Norwegian banking crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 81-112, January.
    17. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    18. Burkhard Drees & Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, 1995. "The Nordic Banking Crises; Pitfalls in Financial Liberalization?," IMF Working Papers 1995/061, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Bae, Kee-Hong & Kang, Jun-Koo & Lim, Chan-Woo, 2002. "The value of durable bank relationships: evidence from Korean banking shocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 181-214, May.
    20. Slovin, Myron B & Sushka, Marie E & Polonchek, John A, 1993. "The Value of Bank Durability: Borrowers as Bank Stakeholders," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 247-266, March.
    21. Kang, Jun-Koo & Stulz, Rene M, 2000. "Do Banking Shocks Affect Borrowing Firm Performance? An Analysis of the Japanese Experience," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(1), pages 1-23, January.
    22. Kaoru Hosono & Koji Sakai & Kotaro Tsuru, 2009. "Consolidation of Banks in Japan: Causes and Consequences," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Sector Development in the Pacific Rim, pages 265-309, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Masahiko Aoki, 2013. "Toward an Economic Model of the Japanese Firm," Chapters, in: Comparative Institutional Analysis, chapter 18, pages 315-341, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    24. Gan, Jie, 2007. "Collateral, debt capacity, and corporate investment: Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 709-734, September.
    25. Ricardo J. Caballero & Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2008. "Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1943-1977, December.
    26. Jason Karceski & Steven Ongena & David C. Smith, 2005. "The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Commercial Borrower Welfare," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(4), pages 2043-2082, August.
    27. Harada, Kimie & Ito, Takatoshi, 2011. "Did mergers help Japanese mega-banks avoid failure? Analysis of the distance to default of banks," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 1-22, March.
    28. Mitchell A. Petersen, 2009. "Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 435-480, January.
    29. Zekeriya Eser & Joe Peek, 2006. "Reciprocity and Network Coordination: Evidence from Japanese Banks," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d05-157, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    30. Randall Morck & Masao Nakamura, 1999. "Banks and Corporate Control in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(1), pages 319-339, February.
    31. Morck, Randall & Nakamura, Masao & Shivdasani, Anil, 2000. "Banks, Ownership Structure, and Firm Value in Japan," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(4), pages 539-567, October.
    32. Paola Sapienza, 2002. "The Effects of Banking Mergers on Loan Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 329-367, February.
    33. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2009. "The Credit Crisis: Conjectures about Causes and Remedies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 606-610, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Nakashima, Kiyotaka & Takahashi, Koji, 2018. "The real effects of bank-driven termination of relationships: Evidence from loan-level matched data," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 46-65.
    2. Cui, Weihan & Cuong, Ly Kim & Shimizu, Katsutoshi, 2020. "Cash policy and the bank-firm relationship," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 804-818.
    3. Nakashima, Kiyotaka, 2016. "An econometric evaluation of bank recapitalization programs with bank- and loan-level data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-24.
    4. González, Francisco, 2016. "Creditor rights, bank competition, and corporate investment during the global financial crisis," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 249-270.
    5. Randall Morck & Bernard Yeung, 2017. "East Asian Financial and Economic Development," NBER Working Papers 23845, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Brewer, Elijah III & Genay, Hesna & Hunter, William Curt & Kaufman, George G., 2003. "The value of banking relationships during a financial crisis: Evidence from failures of Japanese banks," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 233-262, September.
    7. Heather Montgomery & Yuki Takahashi, 2018. "Effect of Bank Mergers on Client Firms: Evidence from the Credit Supply Channel," The Japanese Economic Review, Springer, vol. 69(4), pages 438-449, December.
    8. Miyajima, Hideaki & Yafeh, Yishay, 2007. "Japan's banking crisis: An event-study perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2866-2885, September.
    9. Wu, Xueping & Yao, Jun, 2012. "Understanding the rise and decline of the Japanese main bank system: The changing effects of bank rent extraction," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 36-50.
    10. Nakashima, Kiyotaka & Takahashi, Koji, 2020. "The time has come for banks to say goodbye: New evidence on bank roles and duration effects in relationship terminations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    11. Jiménez, Gabriel & Ongena, Steven & Peydró, José-Luis & Saurina, Jesús, 2010. "Credit supply - Identifying balance-sheet channels with loan applications and granted loans," Working Paper Series 1179, European Central Bank.
    12. Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti & Giorgio Gobbi, 2003. "The effects of bank mergers on credit availability: evidence from corporate data," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 479, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    13. Chava, Sudheer & Purnanandam, Amiyatosh, 2011. "The effect of banking crisis on bank-dependent borrowers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 116-135, January.
    14. Carow, Kenneth A. & Kane, Edward J. & Narayanan, Rajesh P., 2006. "How Have Borrowers Fared in Banking Megamergers?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(3), pages 821-836, April.
    15. Shikimi, Masayo, 2020. "Bank loan supply shocks and leverage adjustment," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 447-460.
    16. Takanori Tanaka, 2009. "Managerial Entrenchment, Banker Distribution, and Corporate Governance: Evidence from Japan," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 09-02, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics.
    17. Nakashima, Kiyotaka & Takahashi, Koji, 2018. "The Time Has Come for Banks to Say Goodbye: New Evidence on Banks' Roles and Duration Effects in Relationship Terminations," MPRA Paper 89446, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Chernobai, Anna & Yasuda, Yukihiro, 2013. "Disclosures of material weaknesses by Japanese firms after the passage of the 2006 Financial Instruments and Exchange Law," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1524-1542.
    19. Patrick McGuire, 2009. "Bank ties and firm performance in Japan: some evidence since FY2002," BIS Working Papers 272, Bank for International Settlements.
    20. Tumer-Alkan, G., 2008. "Essays on banking," Other publications TiSEM 8d5ec521-4702-4e75-bc79-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

    Lists

    This item is featured on the following reading lists, Wikipedia, or ReplicationWiki pages:
    1. On the Real Effects of Bank Bailouts: Micro Evidence from Japan (AEJ:MA 2013) in ReplicationWiki

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aea:aejmac:v:5:y:2013:i:1:p:135-67. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael P. Albert). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/aeaaaea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.