IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/13399.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Consolidation of Banks in Japan: Causes and Consequences

Author

Listed:
  • Kaoru Hosono
  • Koji Sakai
  • Kotaro Tsuru

Abstract

We investigate the motives and consequences of the consolidation of banks in Japan during the period of fiscal year 1990-2004 using a comprehensive dataset. Our analysis suggests that the government's too-big-to-fail policy played an important role in the mergers and acquisitions (M&As), though its attempt does not seem to have been successful. The efficiency-improving motive also seems to have driven the M&As conducted by major banks and regional banks in the post-crisis period, while the market-power motive seems to have driven the M&As conducted by regional banks and corporative (shinkin) banks. We obtain no evidence that supports managerial motives for empire building.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaoru Hosono & Koji Sakai & Kotaro Tsuru, 2007. "Consolidation of Banks in Japan: Causes and Consequences," NBER Working Papers 13399, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13399
    Note: ME IO
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13399.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mitchell, Mark L. & Mulherin, J. Harold, 1996. "The impact of industry shocks on takeover and restructuring activity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 193-229, June.
    2. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1998. "The efficiency effects of bank mergers: An overview of case studies of nine mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 273-291, March.
    3. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 2005. "Unnatural Selection: Perverse Incentives and the Misallocation of Credit in Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1144-1166, September.
    4. Ricardo J. Caballero & Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2008. "Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1943-1977, December.
    5. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 2003. "Stock market driven acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 295-311, December.
    6. Nobuyoshi Yamori & Kozo Harimaya & Kazumine Kondo, 2003. "Are Banks Affiliated with Bank Holding Companies More Efficient Than Independent Banks? The Recent Experience Regarding Japanese Regional BHCs," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer;Japanese Association of Financial Economics and Engineering, vol. 10(4), pages 359-376, December.
    7. Dario Focarelli & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, 2005. "Where Do Banks Expand Abroad? An Empirical Analysis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(6), pages 2435-2464, November.
    8. Gayle Delong & Robert Deyoung, 2007. "Learning by Observing: Information Spillovers in the Execution and Valuation of Commercial Bank M&As," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 181-216, February.
    9. Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap, 2004. "Corporate Financing and Governance in Japan: The Road to the Future," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262582481, January.
    10. Bliss, Richard T. & Rosen, Richard J., 2001. "CEO compensation and bank mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 107-138, July.
    11. Harford, Jarrad, 2005. "What drives merger waves?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 529-560, September.
    12. Fabio Panetta & Dario Focarelli, 2003. "Are Mergers Beneficial to Consumers? Evidence from the Italian Market for Bank Deposits," CEIS Research Paper 10, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
    13. Kano, Masaji & Tsutsui, Yoshiro, 2003. "Geographical segmentation in Japanese bank loan markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 157-174, March.
    14. Kaoru Hosono & Koji Sakai & Kotaro Tsuru, 2006. "Consolidation of Cooperative Banks (Shinkin) in Japan:Motives and Consequences," Discussion papers 06034, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    15. repec:hrv:faseco:30748164 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mathias Hoffmann & Toshihiro Okubo, 2012. "'By a Silken Thread': regional banking integration and pathways to financial development in Japan's Great Recession," ECON - Working Papers 102, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.
    2. Mariassunta Giannetti & Andrei Simonov, 2013. "On the Real Effects of Bank Bailouts: Micro Evidence from Japan," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 135-167, January.
    3. George E. Halkos & Roman Matousek & Nickolaos G. Tzeremes, 2016. "Pre-evaluating technical efficiency gains from possible mergers and acquisitions: evidence from Japanese regional banks," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 47-77, January.
    4. Juliane Gerstenberger & Gunther Schnabl, 2017. "The Impact of Japanese Monetary Policy Crisis Management on the Japanese Banking Sector," CESifo Working Paper Series 6440, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Stefano Caiazza & Alberto Franco Pozzolo & Giovanni Trovato, 2016. "Bank efficiency measures, M&A decision and heterogeneity," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 25-41, August.
    6. repec:eee:empfin:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:66-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Yoshiaki Ogura & Hirofumi Uchida, 2014. "Bank Consolidation and Soft Information Acquisition in Small Business Lending," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 173-200, April.
    8. Harada, Kimie & Ito, Takatoshi, 2011. "Did mergers help Japanese mega-banks avoid failure? Analysis of the distance to default of banks," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 1-22, March.
    9. Uchino, Taisuke, 2014. "Bank deposit interest rate pass-through and geographical segmentation in Japanese banking markets," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 37-51.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13399. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.