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State Regulations, Job Search and Wage Bargaining: A Study in the Economics of the Informal Sector

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  • Maxim Bouev

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Abstract

This paper analyses the emergence of the informal economy in the environment characterised by non-competitive labour markets with wage bargaining. We develop a simple extension of the standard search model à la Pissarides (2000) with formal and informal sectors to show how a government’s auditing of informal firms and barriers to firms’ entry erected in the formal sector by corrupt bureaucracy can make for stable coexistence of formal and informal jobs in the long term. In equilibrium, wage differentials for homogeneous and risk-neutral workers emerge because different types of jobs have different lifetimes and/or have different creation costs. The former are explained by the auditing activities of the government that in the simple set-up destroy informal matches, while keeping formal jobs intact; the latter are due to varying capital costs, or costs associated with red tape and bureaucratic extortion (bribing). Search frictions introduce rent sharing between firms and workers in both formal and informal sectors. This has an important implication for policy making. In particular, we show that if ceteris paribus a firms’ bargaining position vis-à-vis workers is stronger in the formal rather than in the informal sector, governments can afford to appropriate a larger part of a productive match surplus (e.g. by levying higher taxes), without endangering the qualitative outcome in the long run. Rent sharing also implies that both formal and informal sector employees may receive wages above marginal product. We investigate efficiency properties of an equilibrium with formal and informal jobs and discuss the role of the government in creating and eliminating such inefficiencies partially arising from a version of the hold-up problem (Grout, 1984). Some lessons are drawn for normative analyses of policies aimed at reduction of informality in set-ups with non-competitive labour markets. In particular, the conditions are given under which a reduction in size of the informal sector is likely to be detrimental for economic welfare.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number wp764.

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Length: pages
Date of creation: 01 Apr 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2005-764

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Keywords: informal economy; regulations; wage bargaining; labour markets; search models;

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References

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Cited by:
  1. Edoardo Di Porto & Leandro Elia & Cristina Tealdi, 2013. "The "emersion" effect: an ex post and ex ante social program evaluation on labor tax evasion in Italy," Working Papers 2/2013, IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca, revised Jun 2013.
  2. Lisi, G., 2011. "Entrepreneurship, On-the-job Search and Informal Jobs," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, issue 9, pages 33-46.
  3. Gaetano Lisi & Maurizio Pugno, 2009. "Entrepreneurship and the Hidden Economy: an Extended Matching Model," Working Papers 2009-04, Universita' di Cassino, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche.
  4. Lisi, Gaetano, 2010. "Introduzione allo studio dei modelli di "matching" del mercato del lavoro
    [Introduction to the study of matching models of unemployment]
    ," MPRA Paper 22735, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Gaetano LISI, 2011. "Optimal taxation and monitoring in an economy with matching frictions and underground activities," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 2, pages 5-11, June.
  6. Dominik Enste, 2010. "Shadow Economy - The Impact of Regulation in OECD-countries," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 555-571.
  7. Dominik Enste, 2010. "Regulation and shadow economy: empirical evidence for 25 OECD-countries," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 231-248, September.
  8. Moore, Tomoe & Pentecost, Eric J., 2006. "An investigation into the sources of fluctuation in real and nominal wage rates in eight EU countries: A structural VAR approach," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 357-376, June.
  9. Lisi, Gaetano, 2010. "The unemployment volatility puzzle: the role of the underground economy," MPRA Paper 22689, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Lisi, Gaetano & Pugno, Maurizio, 2011. "The Underground Economy in a Matching Model of Endogenous Growth," MPRA Paper 31312, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Gaetano Lisi, 2010. "The Strange Case of Dr. “Unemployed” and Mr “Hidden” in Italy," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(4), pages 2802-2816.
  12. Lisi, Gaetano, 2011. "Matching Models of Equilibrium Unemployment: An Overview," MPRA Paper 30191, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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