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Illegal Activities, but Still Value Added Ones (?): Size, Causes, and Measurement of the Shadow Economies all over the World

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  • Friedrich Schneider

Abstract

Using various methods estimates about the size of the shadow economy in 76 developing, transition and OECD countries are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (in percent of GDP) over 1989-93 in developing countries is 39%, in transition countries 23% and in OECD countries 12%. An increasing burden of taxation and social security contributions combined with rising state regulatory activities are the driving forces for the growth and size of the shadow economy. According to some findings, a growing shadow economy has a negative impact on official GDP growth, however, this result is not robust, other studies show the opposite effect.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 305.

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Date of creation: 2000
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_305

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  1. Clotfelter, Charles T, 1983. "Tax Evasion and Tax Rates: An Analysis of Individual Returns," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 363-73, August.
  2. Giles, David E A, 1999. "Measuring the Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F370-80, June.
  3. Friedrich Schneider & Christopher Bajada, 2003. "The Size and Development of the Shadow Economies in the Asia-Pacific," Economics working papers 2003-01, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  4. Isachsen, Arne Jon & Strom, Steiner, 1985. "The Size and Growth of the Hidden Economy in Norway," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 31(1), pages 21-38, March.
  5. Pissarides, Christopher A. & Weber, Guglielmo, 1989. "An expenditure-based estimate of Britain's black economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 17-32, June.
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  23. Lemieux, Thomas & Fortin, Bernard & Frechette, Pierre, 1994. "The Effect of Taxes on Labor Supply in the Underground Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 231-54, March.
  24. Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "The Increase of the size of the shadow economy of 18 OECD countries: Some preliminary explanations," Economics working papers 2000-08, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
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Cited by:
  1. Chang Woon Nam & RĂ¼diger Parsche & Barbara Schaden, 2001. "Measurement of Value Added Tax Evasion in Selected EU Countries on the Basis of National Accounts Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 431, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Andrea Gebauer & Chang Woon Nam & RĂ¼diger Parsche, 2003. "Is the Completion of EU Single Market Hindered by VAT Evasion?," CESifo Working Paper Series 974, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Strand,J., 2000. "Tax distortions, household production and black-market work," Memorandum 35/2000, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  4. Fabrizio Borselli, 2011. "Organised VAT fraud: features, magnitude, policy perspectives," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 106, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  5. Marija Svec, 2009. "Underground Economy in Croatia," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 33(4), pages 401-429.

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