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Predicting Inflation: Does The Quantity Theory Help?

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  • Lance J. Bachmeier

    ()
    (East Carolina University)

  • Norman R. Swanson

    ()
    (Rutgers University)

Abstract

Various inflation forecasting models are compared using a simulated out-of-sample forecasting framework. We focus on the question of whether monetary aggregates are useful for forecasting inflation, but unlike previous work we examine a wide range of forecast horizons and allow for estimated as well as theoretically specified cointegrating relationships in some of our models. Our findings indicate that there are forecasting gains from allowing monetary aggregates to enter into prediction models via cointegrating restrictions among money, prices, and output derived from a simple version of the quantity theory, but only when the cointegrating relations are specified a priori based on economic theory. When estimated cointegrating relations are used in a vector error correction (VEC) model, a vector autoregression (VAR) model in differences predicts better. These results hold, even during the 1990s, and evidence is presented suggesting that previous findings of a breakdown in the cointegrating relationship among prices, money, and output is the result of a failure of M2 as a measure of the money stock, and is not due to money demand instabilities. Two Monte Carlo experiments that lend credence to our findings are also reported on. The first shows that cointegration vector parameter estimation error is crucial when using VEC models for forecasting, and helps to explain previous findings of the failure of VEC models to forecast better than VAR models. The second shows that random walk and other atheoretical models routinely forecast better than correctly specified alternative models, due to parameter estimation error, indicating that caution needs to be exercised when interpreting the results of such comparisons, particularly when making statements concerning the usefulness of empirical models for use in policy-setting.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Rutgers University, Department of Economics in its series Departmental Working Papers with number 200317.

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Date of creation: 27 Oct 2003
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Handle: RePEc:rut:rutres:200317

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Keywords: Inflation; Phillips curve; Forecast evaluation; cointegration;

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Cited by:
  1. Ronald A. Ratti & Joaquin L. Vespignani, 2014. "Not all international monetary shocks are alike for the Japanese economy," CAMA Working Papers 2014-14, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  2. Berger, Helge & Österholm, Pär, 2008. "Does money matter for U.S. inflation? Evidence from Bayesian VARs," Discussion Papers 2008/9, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
  3. Ronald A. Ratti & Joaquin L. Vespignani, 2014. "Commodity Prices and BRIC and G3 Liquidity: A SFAVEC Approach," CAMA Working Papers 2014-13, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  4. Berger, Helge & Österholm, Pär, 2007. "Does Money Growth Granger-Cause Inflation in the Euro Area? Evidence from Out-of-Sample Forecasts Using Bayesian VARs," Working Paper Series, Uppsala University, Department of Economics 2007:30, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  5. Arto Kovanen, 2011. "Does Money Matter for Inflation in Ghana?," IMF Working Papers 11/274, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Anthony Garratt & Gary Koop & Emi Mise & Shaun Vahey, 2008. "Real-time Prediction with UK Monetary Aggregates in the Presence of Model Uncertainty," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2008/13, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
  7. Sousa, Joao Miguel & Zaghini, Andrea, 2007. "Global monetary policy shocks in the G5: A SVAR approach," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 403-419, December.
  8. Michael Graff, 2008. "The Quantity Theory of Money in Historical Perspective," KOF Working papers 08-196, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  9. Horváth, Roman & Komárek, Luboš & Rozsypal, Filip, 2011. "Does money help predict inflation? An empirical assessment for Central Europe," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 523-536.
  10. Doyle, Matthew, 2006. "Empirical Phillips Curves in OECD Countries: Has There Been A Common Breakdown?," Staff General Research Papers 12684, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  11. Berger, Helge & Österholm, Pär, 2008. "Does money growth granger-cause inflation in the Euro Area? Evidence from output-of-sample forecasts using Bayesian VARs," Discussion Papers 2008/10, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
  12. Ronald A. Ratti & Joaquin L. Vespignani, 2014. "Oil prices and the economy: A global perspective," CAMA Working Papers 2014-41, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.

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