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Teacher Unions, Teacher Pay and Student Performance in India: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach

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  • Geeta Kingdon
  • Francis Teal

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between teacher unionization, student achievement and teachers’ pay using a cross-section of data from private schools in India. We use differences in student mark across subjects to identify within-pupil variation in achievement and find that union membership of the teacher appears to strongly reduce pupil achievement. We find no evidence this could be due to the unobservables not controlled for by this procedure. A school fixed effects equation of teacher pay shows that union membership substantially raises pay and in this case too we find that remaining unobservables are unlikely to explain this outcome. We thus have in this data clear evidence that unions raise cost and reduce student achievement.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2008/wp-cesifo-2008-10/cesifo1_wp2428.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2428.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2428

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Keywords: teacher unions; teacher salaries; student achievement; productivity; India;

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References

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  1. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2007. "The progress of school education in India," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 168-195, Summer.
  2. Esther Duflo & Rema Hanna, 2005. "Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School," Working Papers id:301, eSocialSciences.
  3. Hanushek, Eric A. & Wößmann, Ludger, 2008. "The role of cognitive skills in economic development," Munich Reprints in Economics, University of Munich, Department of Economics 20454, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  4. Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi & Teal, Francis, 2007. "Does performance related pay for teachers improve student performance? Some evidence from India," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 473-486, August.
  5. Sandra McNally & Stephen Machin, 2004. "The Literacy Hour," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2004, Royal Economic Society 43, Royal Economic Society.
  6. Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 1998. "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement," NBER Working Papers 6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Randall W. Eberts & Joe A. Stone, 1987. "The effect of teacher unions on student achievement," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 40(3), pages 354-363, April.
  8. Charles T. Clotfelter & Helen F. Ladd & Jacob L. Vigdor, 2006. "Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4).
  9. Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2000. "Selection on Observed and Unobserved Variables: Assessing the Effectiveness of Catholic Schools," NBER Working Papers 7831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Ballou, Dale, 2001. "Pay for performance in public and private schools," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 51-61, February.
  11. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule To Estimate The Effect Of Class Size On Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575, May.
  12. Robert J. Lemke, 2004. "Estimating the Union Wage Effect for Public School Teachers When All Teachers Are Unionized," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 273-291, Spring.
  13. Randall W. Eberts, . "Teacher Unions and Student Performance: Help or Hindrance?," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles rwe2007, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  14. Hoxby, Caroline Minter, 1996. "How Teachers' Unions Affect Education Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 111(3), pages 671-718, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Patrinos, Harry A. & Sakellariou, Chris, 2011. "Quality of Schooling, Returns to Schooling and the 1981 Vouchers Reform in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2245-2256.
  2. Cavalcanti, Tiago & Guimaraes, Juliana & Sampaio, Breno, 2010. "Barriers to skill acquisition in Brazil: Public and private school students performance in a public university entrance exam," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 395-407, November.
  3. Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2007. "What can Teachers do to Raise Pupil Achievement?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2007-14, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  4. Prashant Loyalka & Andrey Zakharov, 2014. "Does shadow education help students prepare for college?," HSE Working papers WP BRP 15/EDU/2014, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
  5. Nadir Altinok & Geeta Kingdon, 2009. "New Evidence on Class Size Effects : A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," CSAE Working Paper Series 2009-16, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  6. Pal, Sarmistha & Kingdon, Geeta, 2010. "Can Private School Growth Foster Universal Literacy? Panel Evidence from Indian Districts," IZA Discussion Papers 5274, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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