Teacher characteristics and student performance in India: A pupil fixed effects approach
AbstractThis paper exploits unique data that permits the matching of students` test scores in different subjects to the teachers that teach those subjects. Within-pupil (across-subject, rather than across-time) variation is used to examine whether the characteristics of different subject teachers are related to a students` marks across subjects. There are four main contributions. Firstly the findings, using a credible methodology for identification, give only modest grounds for optimism about the effects of teacher policies. A teacher`s possession of Masters level qualification and pre-service training have well identified but small effects on student achievement. While a teacher`s union membership strongly reduces pupil achievement, union membership is typically not a policy variable. The bulk of the variation in student achievement is a school fixed effect and observed school characteristics explain less than 30% of this fixed effect. The second main contribution of the paper is to highlight the importance of `controlling for` the non-random matching of students to schools and teachers. The finding that within-pupil effects of many teacher variables differ very significantly from the across school effects indicates that much of the extant achievement production function literature - which perforce relies on across school estimation - leads to incorrect inferences because it confounds the effect of unobserved school and pupil heterogeneity with the effect of teacher characteristics. This underlines the importance of finding credible sources of within school and preferably within-student variation in future research. Thirdly, the paper showcases the use of an across-subject estimator of the achievement production function which is similar to the more familiar panel data approach but which circumvents the problem of non-random attrition of students/teachers over time and the problem of non-random matching of students to teachers, and which permits the identification of teacher effects in cross-section data that are readily available. Finally, a school fixed effects equation of teacher pay shows that while teacher compensation is efficient in some respects, i.e. teachers are rewarded for characteristics that raise student achievement, it is not so in other respects. In particular, union membership is substantially rewarded when in fact it is associated with signficantly lower student achievement, raising the question whether teachers` right to unionize pits teacher interests against student interests.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number GPRG-WPS-059.
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Teacher Salaries; Student Achievement; Productivity; India;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eric A. Hanushek & John F. Kain & Steven G. Rivkin, 1999. "Do Higher Salaries Buy Better Teachers?," NBER Working Papers 7082, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thomas S. Dee, 2005. "A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 158-165, May.
- Eric A. Hanushek, 2003.
"The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(485), pages F64-F98, February.
- Alan B. Krueger, 1997.
"Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions,"
NBER Working Papers
6051, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alan B. Krueger, 1999. "Experimental Estimates Of Education Production Functions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 497-532, May.
- Victor Lavy, 2009.
"Performance Pay and Teachers' Effort, Productivity, and Grading Ethics,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 99(5), pages 1979-2011, December.
- Victor Lavy, 2004. "Performance Pay and Teachers' Effort, Productivity and Grading Ethics," NBER Working Papers 10622, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alan B. Krueger, 2002.
"Economic Considerations and Class Size,"
NBER Working Papers
8875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Michael Kremer, 2003. "Randomized Evaluations of Educational Programs in Developing Countries: Some Lessons," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 102-106, May.
- Victor Lavy, 2002. "Evaluating the Effect of Teachers' Group Performance Incentives on Pupil Achievement," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(6), pages 1286-1317, December.
- Joshua D. Angrist, 2004. "American Education Research Changes Tack," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(2), pages 198-212, Summer.
- Nadir Altinok, 2009.
"New Evidence on Class Size Effects: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach,"
Economics Series Working Papers
CSAE WPS/2009-16, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Nadir Altinok & Geeta Kingdon, 2012. "New Evidence on Class Size Effects: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 74(2), pages 203-234, 04.
- Nadir Altinok & Geeta Kingdon, 2009. "New Evidence on Class Size Effects : A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," CSAE Working Paper Series 2009-16, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Nadir Altinok & Geeta Kingdon, 2009. "New Evidence on Class Size Effects: A Pupil Fixed Effects Approach," Post-Print halshs-00417229, HAL.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Caroline Wise).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.