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Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France

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  • Clément Bosquet
  • Pierre-Philippe Combes
  • Cecila Garcia-Penalosa

Abstract

Differences in promotion across genders are still prevalent in many occupations. Recent work based on experimental evidence indicates that women participate less in or exert lower effort during contests. We exploit the unique features of the promotion system for French academics to look at women's attitudes towards competition in an actual labour market. Using data for academic economists over the period 1991-2008 we find that, conditional on entering the competition, there is no difference in promotions across the genders, which is difficult to reconcile with either discrimination or a poorer performance of women in contests. In contrast, women have a substantially lower probability than men to enter the promotion contest. Our data does not support that this gap is due to differences in costs or in preferences concerning department prestige, indicating that women are less willing than men to take part in contests.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE in its series SERC Discussion Papers with number 0147.

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Date of creation: Nov 2013
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Handle: RePEc:cep:sercdp:0147

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Web page: http://www.spatialeconomics.ac.uk/SERC/publications/default.asp

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Keywords: Gender gaps; promotions; academic labour markets;

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  1. Booth, Alison & Jeff Frank & David Blackaby, 2003. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK Academic Labour Market," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 28, Royal Economic Society.
  2. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "Unequal Pay or Unequal Employment? A Cross-Country Analysis of Gender Gaps," Boston University - Department of Economics - Macroeconomics Working Papers Series WP2005-013, Boston University - Department of Economics, revised Aug 2008.
  3. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?," Discussion Papers 04-030, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  4. Boschini, Anne & Sjögren, Anna, 2006. "Is Team Formation Gender Neutral? Evidence from Coauthorship Patterns," Working Paper Series 658, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  5. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance In Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074, August.
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  7. Zinovyeva, Natalia & Bagues, Manuel F., 2012. "The Role of Connections in Academic Promotions," IZA Discussion Papers 6821, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. McDowell, John M & Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1992. "The Effect of Gender-Sorting on Propensity to Coauthor: Implications for Academic Promotion," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(1), pages 68-82, January.
  9. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Linnemer, Laurent & Visser, Michael, 2008. "Publish or peer-rich? The role of skills and networks in hiring economics professors," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 423-441, June.
  10. Kelchtermans, Stijn & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2005. "Top Research Productivity and its Persistence," CEPR Discussion Papers 5415, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  12. Bosquet, Clément & Combes, Pierre-Philippe, 2013. "Do large departments make academics more productive? Agglomeration and peer effects in research," CEPR Discussion Papers 9401, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Mareva Sabatier, 2010. "Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions," Post-Print hal-00825992, HAL.
  14. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes, 2012. "Are academics who publish more also more cited? Individual determinants of publication and citation records," AMSE Working Papers 1236, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Marseille, France.
  15. Farber, Stephen, 1977. "The Earnings and Promotion of Women Faculty: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 199-206, March.
  16. Stijn Kelchtermans & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2013. "Top Research Productivity and Its Persistence: Gender as a Double-Edged Sword," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(1), pages 273-285, March.
  17. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
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  19. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Anders Poulsen & Marie Claire Villeval, 2013. "Gender matching and competitiveness: experimental evidence," Post-Print halshs-00661770, HAL.
  20. Blackaby, David & Booth, Alison L & Frank, Jeff, 2002. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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Cited by:
  1. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes & Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa, 2014. "Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France," Sciences Po publications 29, Sciences Po.

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