Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and Issues

Contents:

Author Info

  • Martinez, Stephen W.
  • Hand, Michael S.
  • Da Pra, Michelle
  • Pollack, Susan L.
  • Ralston, Katherine L.
  • Smith, Travis A.
  • Vogel, Stephen J.
  • Clark, Shellye
  • Lohr, Luanne
  • Low, Sarah A.
  • Newman, Constance

Abstract

This comprehensive overview of local food systems explores alternative definitions of local food, estimates market size and reach, describes the characteristics of local consumers and producers, and examines early indications of the economic and health impacts of local food systems. There is no consensus on a definition of “local” or “local food systems” in terms of the geographic distance between production and consumption. But defining “local” based on marketing arrangements, such as farmers selling directly to consumers at regional farmers’ markets or to schools, is well recognized. Statistics suggest that local food markets account for a small, but growing, share of U.S. agricultural production. For smaller farms, direct marketing to consumers accounts for a higher percentage of their sales than for larger farms. Findings are mixed on the impact of local food systems on local economic development and better nutrition levels among consumers, and sparse literature is so far inconclusive about whether localization reduces energy use or greenhouse gas emissions.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96635
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service in its series Economic Research Report with number 96635.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: May 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ags:uersrr:96635

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 1400 Independence Ave.,SW, Mail Stop 1800, Washington, DC 20250-1800
Phone: 202-694-5050
Fax: 202-694-5700
Email:
Web page: http://www.ers.usda.gov/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: local food systems; farmers’ markets; direct-to-consumer marketing; direct-to-retail/ foodservice marketing; community supported agriculture; farm to school programs; Farmers’ Market Promotion Program; food miles; Community/Rural/Urban Development;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. repec:oup:ajagec:v:90:y:2008:i:5:p:1296-1302 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Eastwood, David B., 1996. "Using Customer Surveys To Promote Farmers' Markets: A Case Study," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 27(3), October.
  3. Heimlich, Ralph E. & Anderson, William D., 2001. "Development At The Urban Fringe And Beyond: Impacts On Agriculture And Rural Land," Agricultural Economics Reports 33943, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  4. Bond, Jennifer Keeling & Thilmany, Dawn D. & Bond, Craig A., 2009. "What Influences Consumer Choice of Fresh Produce Purchase Location?," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 41(01), April.
  5. Biermacher, Jon T. & Upson, Steve & Miller, David C. & Pittman, Dusty, 2007. "Economic Challenges of Small-Scale Vegetable Production and Retailing in Rural Communities: An Example from Rural Oklahoma," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 38(3), November.
  6. Zepeda, Lydia & Li, Jinghan, 2006. "Who Buys Local Food?," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 37(03), November.
  7. Eastwood, David B. & Brooker, John R. & Orr, Robert H., 1987. "Consumer Preferences For Local Versus Out-Of-State Grown Selected Fresh Produce: The Case Of Knoxville, Tennessee," Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 19(02), December.
  8. Carlos E. Carpio & Olga Isengildina-Massa, 2009. "Consumer willingness to pay for locally grown products: the case of South Carolina," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(3), pages 412-426.
  9. Patricia Allen, 1999. "Reweaving the food security safety net: Mediating entitlement and entrepreneurship," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 117-129, June.
  10. Pretty, J.N. & Ball, A.S. & Lang, T. & Morison, J.I.L., 2005. "Farm costs and food miles: An assessment of the full cost of the UK weekly food basket," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 1-19, February.
  11. Wolf, Marianne McGarry, 1997. "A Target Consumer Profile And Positioning For Promotion Of The Direct Marketing Of Fresh Produce: A Case Study," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 28(3), October.
  12. Gallons, James & Toensmeyer, Ulrich C. & Bacon, J. Richard & German, Carl L., 1997. "An Analysis Of Consumer Characteristics Concerning Direct Marketing Of Fresh Produce In Delaware: A Case Study," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 28(1), February.
  13. Thilmany, Dawn D. & Watson, Philip, 2004. "The Increasing Role Of Direct Marketing And Farmers Markets For Western Us Producers," Western Economics Forum, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 3(02), December.
  14. Kim Darby & Marvin T. Batte & Stan Ernst & Brian Roe, 2008. "Decomposing Local: A Conjoint Analysis of Locally Produced Foods," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), pages 476-486.
  15. Key, Nigel D. & Roberts, Michael J., 2007. "Measures of Trends in Farm Size Tell Differing Stories," Amber Waves, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, November.
  16. Shermain D. Hardesty, 2008. "The Growing Role of Local Food Markets," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1289-1295.
  17. Kezis, Alan S. & Toensmeyer, Ulrich C. & King, F. Richard & Jack, Robert L. & Kerr, Howard W., 1984. "Consumer Acceptance And Preference For Direct Marketing In The Northeast," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 15(3), September.
  18. James, Jennifer S. & Rickard, Bradley J. & Rossman, William J., 2009. "Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation in Applesauce: Using a Choice Experiment to Assess the Value of Organic, Local and Nutrition Attributes," Working Papers 48916, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
  19. Lehman, Joel & Bacon, J. Richard & Toensmeyer, Ulrich C. & Pesek, John D., Jr. & German, Carl L., 1998. "An Analysis Of Consumer Preferences For Delaware Farmer Direct Markets," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 29(1), February.
  20. LeRoux, Matthew N. & Schmit, Todd M. & Roth, Monika & Streeter, Deborah H., 2009. "Evaluating Marketing Channel Options for Small-Scale Fruit and Vegetable Producers," Working Papers 49006, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
  21. Beamer, Bobby G., 1999. "How To Sell Fresh Produce To Supermarket Chains," Report Papers 14849, Virginia Tech, Rural Economic Analysis Program (REAP).
  22. Swenson, David A., 2009. "Investigating the Potential Economic Impacts of Local Foods for Southeast Iowa," Staff General Research Papers 13121, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  23. Brooker, John R. & Eastwood, David B., 1989. "Using State Logos To Increase Purchases Of Selected Food Products," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 20(1), February.
  24. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika & Ekstrom, Marianne Pipping & Shanahan, Helena, 2003. "Food and life cycle energy inputs: consequences of diet and ways to increase efficiency," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2-3), pages 293-307, March.
  25. Hinson, Roger A. & Bruchhaus, Michael N., 2005. "Louisiana Strawberries: Consumer Preferences and Retailer Advertising," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 36(01), March.
  26. Coley, David & Howard, Mark & Winter, Michael, 2009. "Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: A comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 150-155, April.
  27. Jennifer Grannis & Dawn D. Thilmany, 2002. "Marketing natural pork: An empirical analysis of consumers in the mountain region," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 475-489.
  28. Golan, Elise H. & Krissoff, Barry & Kuchler, Fred & Calvin, Linda & Nelson, Kenneth E. & Price, Gregory K., 2004. "Traceability In The U.S. Food Supply: Economic Theory And Industry Studies," Agricultural Economics Reports 33939, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  29. Urban, Thomas N., 1991. "Agricultural Industrialization: It's Inevitable," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 6(4).
  30. Henneberry, Shida Rastegari & Whitacre, Brian E. & Agustini, Haerani N., 2009. "An Evaluation of the Economic Impacts of Oklahoma Farmers Markets," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 40(3), November.
  31. Heller, Martin C. & Keoleian, Gregory A., 2003. "Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: a life cycle perspective," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 1007-1041, June.
  32. Best, Michael J. & Wolfe, Kent L., 2009. "A Profile of Local Dairy Consumers in the Southeast and the Potential for Dairies to Market Value-Added Products Locally," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 40(1), March.
  33. Farnsworth, Richard L. & Thompson, Sarahelen R. & Drury, Kathleen A. & Warner, Richard E., 1996. "Community Supported Agriculture: Filling A Niche Market," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 27(1), February.
  34. Govindasamy, Ramu & Zurbriggen, Marta & Italia, John & Adelaja, Adesoji O. & Nitzsche, Peter & VanVranken, Richard, 1998. "Farmers Markets: Consumer Trends, Preferences, and Characteristics," P Series 36722, Rutgers University, Department of Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics.
  35. Uva, Wen-fei L., 2002. "An Analysis of Vegetable Farms' Direct Marketing Activities in New York State," Research Bulletins 122632, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
  36. Giraud, Kelly L. & Bond, Craig A. & Bond, Jennifer Keeling, 2005. "Consumer Preferences for Locally Made Specialty Food Products Across Northern New England," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 34(2), October.
  37. Uva, Wen-fei L., 2002. "An Analysis Of Vegetable Farms' Direct Marketing Activities In New York State," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 33(01), March.
  38. Kuches, Kristy & Toensmeyer, Ulrich C. & German, Carl L. & Kuklish, Jaime, 2000. "The Impact Of Respondents' Characteristics On Purchasing Decisions," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 31(01), March.
  39. Anne Bellows & Michael Hamm, 2001. "Local autonomy and sustainable development: Testing import substitution in more localized food systems," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 271-284, September.
  40. Matthew Mariola, 2008. "The local industrial complex? Questioning the link between local foods and energy use," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 193-196, June.
  41. Dimitri, Carolyn & Effland, Anne, 2005. "Milestones in U.S. Farming and Farm Policy," Amber Waves, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, June.
  42. Durham, Catherine A. & King, Robert P. & Roheim, Cathy A., 2009. "Consumer Definitions of "Locally Grown" for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 40(1), March.
  43. Jekanowski, Mark D. & Williams, Daniel R., II & Schiek, William A., 2000. "Consumers' Willingness To Purchase Locally Produced Agricultural Products: An Analysis Of An Indiana Survey," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 29(1), April.
  44. Boehlje, Michael, 1996. "Industrialization of Agriculture: What are the Implications?," Choices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 11(1).
  45. Swenson, David A., 2008. "Estimating the Production and Market Value-Based Impacts of Nutritional Goals in Ne Iowa," Staff General Research Papers 12923, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  46. Wolf, Marianne McGarry & Spittler, Arianne & Ahern, James, 2005. "A Profile of Farmers' Market Consumers and the Perceived Advantages of Produce Sold at Farmers' Markets," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 36(01), March.
  47. Eastwood, David B. & Brooker, John R. & Gray, Morgan D., 1999. "Location And Other Market Attributes Affecting Farmer'S Market Patronage: The Case Of Tennessee," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 30(1), March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Abello, Francisco J. & Palma, Marco A. & Anderson, David P. & Waller, Mark W., 2012. "Evaluating the Factors Influecing the Number of Visits to Farmers' Markets," 2012 Annual Meeting, February 4-7, 2012, Birmingham, Alabama 119786, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
  2. Brodt, Sonja & Kramer, Klaas Jan & Kendall, Alissa & Feenstra, Gail, 2013. "Comparing environmental impacts of regional and national-scale food supply chains: A case study of processed tomatoes," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 106-114.
  3. Robbins, M.J., 2013. "Locating food sovereignty: geographical and sectoral distance in the global food system," ISS Working Papers - General Series 557, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
  4. Watson, Marissa C. & Cesar, Escalante & Ames, Glenn C.W. & Wolfe, Kent & Kane, Sharon P., 2012. "Farm to School: A Market Analysis," 2012 Annual Meeting, February 4-7, 2012, Birmingham, Alabama 119776, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
  5. Ahearn, Mary & Sterns, James, 2013. "Direct-to-Consumer Sales of Farm Products: Producers and Supply Chains in the Southeast," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 45(03), August.
  6. Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen) & Pescatore, Matthew, 2014. "Influences of Social Networks on Food Choices: A Comparison of Local, Regional, and National Perspectives," 2014 AAEA/EAAE/CAES Joint Symposium: Social Networks, Social Media and the Economics of Food, May 29-30, 2014, Montreal, Canada 168230, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association;Canadian Agricultural Economics Society;European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  7. Tammy Warner & Rigoberto A. Lopez & Adam Rabinowitz & Ben Campbell, 2012. "Estimates of Consumption of Locally-Grown Agricultural Products in Connecticut," Outreach Reports 10, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  8. Menapace, Luisa & Raffaelli, Roberta, 2013. "Do ‘locally grown’ claims influence artisanal food purchase? Evidence from a natural field experiment," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150282, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  9. John C. Boik, 2014. "First Microsimulation Model of a LEDDA Community Currency--Dollar Economy," Working Paper 0001, Principled Societies Project, revised Aug 2014.
  10. Uematsu, Hiroki & Mishra, Ashok K., 2011. "Use of Direct Marketing Strategies by Farmers and Their Impact on Farm Business Income," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 40(1), April.
  11. Karen Hills & Jessica Goldberger & Stephen Jones, 2013. "Commercial bakers and the relocalization of wheat in western Washington State," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 365-378, September.
  12. Maumbe, Blessing M. & Brown, Cheryl, 2013. "Entrepreneurial and Buyer-Driven Local Wine Supply Chains: Case Study of Acres of Land Winery in Kentucky," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA), vol. 16(1).
  13. STANTON, John L. & WILEY, James B. & WIRTH, Ferdiand, 2011. "Marketing Contra to the Trend: Back to basic," Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Romanian Distribution Committee, vol. 2(2), pages 22-32, June.
  14. Berning, Joshua & Bonanno, Alessandro & Etemaadnia, Hamideh, 2013. "Farmers’ markets location determinants: An empirical analysis in New England," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150593, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  15. Katchova, Ani L. & Woods, Timothy A., 2013. "Local Foods and Food Cooperatives: Ethics, Economics and Competition Issues," Staff Papers 164519, University of Kentucky, Department of Agricultural Economics.
  16. T. Heikkinen, 2014. "A Hotelling model of spatial competition with local production," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 103-120, July.
  17. Smith, Bobby J. II & Kaiser, Harry M. & Gómez, Miguel I., 2013. "Identifying Factors Influencing a Hospital’s Decision to Adopt a Farm-to-Hospital Program," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 42(3), December.
  18. Watson, Marissa C. & Escalante, Cesar L. & Ames, Glenn C.W. & Wolfe, Kent & Kane, Sharon P., 2012. "Motivations and Challenges in Farm to School Participation: Nutrition Versus Food Hardship Considerations," 2013 Annual Meeting, February 2-5, 2013, Orlando, Florida 143055, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
  19. Arita, Shawn & Hemanchandra, Dilini & Leung, PingSun, 0. "Can Local Farms Survive Globalization?," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association.
  20. Sun, Lin & Gómez, Miguel I. & Chaddad, Fabio R. & Ross, R. Brent, 2014. "Distribution Channel Choices of Wineries in Emerging Cool Climate Regions," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 43(1), April.
  21. Adalja, Aaron & Hanson, James & Towe, Charles & Tselepidakis, Elina, 2013. "An Examination of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Local Products," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150505, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  22. An, Henry & Pouliot, Sebastien & Volpe, Richard J., III, 2012. "Local, Organic, Inexpensive and Safe: Can Large Retailers Do It All?," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 124754, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  23. Velandia, Margarita M. & Davis, James A. & Lambert, Dayton M. & Clark, Christopher D. & Wilcox, Michael D., Jr & Wszelaki, Annette & Jensen, Kimberly L., 2012. "Factors Affecting Producer Awareness of State Programs Promoting Locally Grown Foods: The Case of Fruit and Vegetable Growers in Tennessee," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 43(2), July.
  24. Volpe, Richard & Leibtag, Ephraim & Roeger, Edward, 2013. "How Transport Costs Affect Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Prices," Economic Research Report 161355, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:uersrr:96635. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.