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Bidding strategies and takeover premiums: A review

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  • Eckbo, B. Espen

Abstract

I review recent empirical research documenting offer premiums and bidding strategies in corporate takeovers. The discussion ranges from optimal auction bidding to the choice of deal payment form and premium effects of poison pills. The evidence describes the takeover process at a detailed level, from initial premiums to bid jumps, entry of rival bidders, and toehold strategies. Cross-sectional tests illuminate whether bidders properly adjust for winner's curse, whether target stock price runups force offer price markups, and whether auctions of bankrupt firms result in fire-sale discounts. The evidence is suggestive of rational strategic bidding behavior in specific contexts.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Corporate Finance.

Volume (Year): 15 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 149-178

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Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:15:y:2009:i:1:p:149-178

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin

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Keywords: Takeover Merger Tender offer Auction Offer premium Bidder gains Toeholds Overbidding Markups Hostility Method of payment Fire-sale discounts Bankruptcy;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Koch, Adam S. & Lefanowicz, Craig E. & Robinson, John R., 2012. "The effect of quarterly earnings guidance on share values in corporate acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 1269-1285.
  2. Dodonova, Anna & Khoroshilov, Yuri, 2014. "Can preemptive bidding in takeover auctions be socially optimal? Yes it can," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 34-47.
  3. Humphery-Jenner, Mark L. & Powell, Ronan G., 2011. "Firm size, takeover profitability, and the effectiveness of the market for corporate control: Does the absence of anti-takeover provisions make a difference?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 418-437, June.
  4. Podolski, Edward J. & Truong, Cameron & Veeraraghavan, Madhu, 2013. "Informed options trading prior to takeovers – Does the regulatory environment matter?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 286-305.
  5. Riccardo Calcagno & Sonia Falconieri, 2008. "White Knights and the Corporate Governance of Hostile Takeovers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-118/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  6. Dodonova, Anna, 2013. "Preemptive bidding in takeover auctions with externality," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 35-44.
  7. de La Bruslerie, Hubert, 2013. "Crossing takeover premiums and mix of payment: An empirical test of contractual setting in M&A transactions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2106-2123.
  8. Aktas, Nihat & de Bodt, Eric & Roll, Richard, 2009. "Learning, hubris and corporate serial acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 543-561, December.
  9. Aktas, Nihat & de Bodt, Eric & Roll, Richard, 2011. "Serial acquirer bidding: An empirical test of the learning hypothesis," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 18-32, February.
  10. Weitzel, Utz & Kling, Gerhard, 2012. "Sold below value? Why some targets accept very low and even negative takeover premiums," MPRA Paper 42832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Aktas, Nihat & de Bodt, Eric & Roll, Richard, 2010. "Negotiations under the threat of an auction," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 241-255, November.
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