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Bidding strategies and takeover premiums: A review

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  • Eckbo, B. Espen

Abstract

I review recent empirical research documenting offer premiums and bidding strategies in corporate takeovers. The discussion ranges from optimal auction bidding to the choice of deal payment form and premium effects of poison pills. The evidence describes the takeover process at a detailed level, from initial premiums to bid jumps, entry of rival bidders, and toehold strategies. Cross-sectional tests illuminate whether bidders properly adjust for winner's curse, whether target stock price runups force offer price markups, and whether auctions of bankrupt firms result in fire-sale discounts. The evidence is suggestive of rational strategic bidding behavior in specific contexts.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Corporate Finance.

Volume (Year): 15 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 149-178

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Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:15:y:2009:i:1:p:149-178

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin

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Keywords: Takeover Merger Tender offer Auction Offer premium Bidder gains Toeholds Overbidding Markups Hostility Method of payment Fire-sale discounts Bankruptcy;

References

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Citations

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  2. Podolski, Edward J. & Truong, Cameron & Veeraraghavan, Madhu, 2013. "Informed options trading prior to takeovers – Does the regulatory environment matter?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 286-305.
  3. Calcagno, Riccardo & Falconieri, Sonia, 2014. "Competition and dynamics of takeover contests," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 36-56.
  4. Ang, James & Mauck, Nathan, 2011. "Fire sale acquisitions: Myth vs. reality," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 532-543, March.
  5. Koch, Adam S. & Lefanowicz, Craig E. & Robinson, John R., 2012. "The effect of quarterly earnings guidance on share values in corporate acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 1269-1285.
  6. Riccardo Calcagno & Sonia Falconieri, 2008. "White Knights and the Corporate Governance of Hostile Takeovers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-118/2, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Di Giuli, Alberta, 2013. "The effect of stock misvaluation and investment opportunities on the method of payment in mergers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 196-215.
  8. Weitzel, Utz & Kling, Gerhard, 2012. "Sold below value? Why some targets accept very low and even negative takeover premiums," MPRA Paper 42832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Díaz Díaz, Belén & Sanfilippo Azofra, Sergio & López Gutiérrez, Carlos, 2013. "Synergies or overpayment in European corporate M&A," MPRA Paper 51070, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Aktas, Nihat & de Bodt, Eric & Roll, Richard, 2009. "Learning, hubris and corporate serial acquisitions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 543-561, December.
  11. Khoroshilov, Yuri, 2012. "Preemptive bidding in takeover auctions with affiliated values," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(4), pages 395-401.
  12. Humphery-Jenner, Mark L. & Powell, Ronan G., 2011. "Firm size, takeover profitability, and the effectiveness of the market for corporate control: Does the absence of anti-takeover provisions make a difference?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 418-437, June.
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  14. Vermaelen, Theo & Xu, Moqi, 2014. "Acquisition finance and market timing," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 73-91.
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