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Do Tender Offers Create Value? New Methods and Evidence

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  • SANJAI BHAGAT

    (University of Colorado - Leeds School of Business)

  • MING DONG

    (York University - Schulich School of Business)

  • DAVID A. HIRSHLEIFER

    (Ohio State University - Fisher College of Business)

  • ROBERT B. NOAH

    (Cambridge Finance Partners, LLC)

Abstract

We develop the Probability Scaling Method, which rescales short-window announcement period returns; and the Intervention Method, which uses returns associated with intervening events, to estimate value improvements from tender offers. These methods address biases in conventional techniques, which measure only a fraction of the total tender offer gain; and which include revelation about bidder stand-alone value. Perceived value improvements are much larger than traditional methods indicate, so that we cannot reject the hypothesis that bidders on average pay fair prices for targets. Furthermore, our new methods affect inferences about economic forces in the takeover market. We identify several effects (higher combined bidder-target stock returns for hostile offers, lower for equity offers, and lower for diversifying offers) that reflect differences in revelation about stand-alone value, not gains from combination.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Finance with number 0412011.

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Length: 64 pages
Date of creation: 05 Dec 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:0412011

Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 64
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Web page: http://128.118.178.162

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Keywords: Tender offers; value improvements; truncation dilemma; revelation bias; agency;

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Cited by:
  1. Anna Khripunova & Konstantin Vishnevskiy & Oleg Karasev & Dirk Meissner, 2013. "Intelligent data systems to aid decision-making at tenders for oil and gas fields development," HSE Working papers WP BRP 07/STI/2013, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
  2. Dennis C. Mueller & B. Burcin Yurtoglu, 2007. "Corporate governance and the returns to acquiring firms' shareholders: an international comparison," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(8), pages 879-896.
  3. Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tanyeri, Basak & Tehranian, Hassan, 2011. "The effect of merger anticipation on bidder and target firm announcement period returns," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 595-611, June.
  4. Nagano, Mamoru, 2007. "Cross-border Acquisitions in a Transition Economy: Recent Experiences of China and India," MPRA Paper 24568, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2010.
  5. Alexandrou, George & Gounopoulos, Dimitrios & Thomas, Hardy M., 2014. "Mergers and acquisitions in shipping," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 212-234.
  6. Eckbo, B. Espen, 2009. "Bidding strategies and takeover premiums: A review," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 149-178, February.
  7. Becher, David A., 2009. "Bidder returns and merger anticipation: Evidence from banking deregulation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 85-98, February.
  8. Gerhard Kling & G.U. Weitzel, 2009. "Endogenous mergers: bidder momentum and market reaction," Working Papers 09-22, Utrecht School of Economics.
  9. Renneboog, L.D.R. & Szilagyi, P.G., 2006. "How do Mergers and Acquisitions Affect Bondholders in Europe? Evidence on the Impact and Spillover of Governance and Legal Standards," Discussion Paper 2006-55, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  10. Bhagat, Sanjai & Malhotra, Shavin & Zhu, PengCheng, 2011. "Emerging country cross-border acquisitions: Characteristics, acquirer returns and cross-sectional determinants," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 250-271, September.
  11. Mantecon, Tomas, 2008. "An analysis of the implications of uncertainty and agency problems on the wealth effects to acquirers of private firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 892-905, May.
  12. Ulrike Malmendier & Marcus Matthias Opp & Farzad Saidi, 2012. "Cash is King - Revaluation of Targets after Merger Bids," NBER Working Papers 18211, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Chen, Xia & Harford, Jarrad & Li, Kai, 2007. "Monitoring: Which institutions matter?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 279-305, November.
  14. Martynova, Marina & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "A century of corporate takeovers: What have we learned and where do we stand?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2148-2177, October.
  15. Brown, Rayna & Sarma, Neal, 2007. "CEO overconfidence, CEO dominance and corporate acquisitions," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 59(5), pages 358-379.
  16. Derek Oler & James Waegelein, 2011. "Can long-term performance plans mitigate the negative effects of stock consideration and high cash for acquirers?," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 63-86, July.
  17. Szilagyi, P.G., 2007. "Corporate Governance and the Agency Costs of Debt and Outside Equity," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-321510, Tilburg University.
  18. Lina M. Cortés & Diego A. Agudelo & Samuel Mongrut, 2012. "Waves and determinants in the activity of Mergers and Acquisitions: The Case of Latin America," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO CIEF 010658, UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT.
  19. Andreou, Panayiotis C. & Louca, Christodoulos & Panayides, Photis M., 2012. "Valuation effects of mergers and acquisitions in freight transportation," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1221-1234.
  20. Low, Angie & Makhija, Anil K. & Sanders, Anthony B., 2007. "The Impact of Shareholder Power on Bondholders: Evidence from Mergers and Acquisitions," Working Paper Series 2007-5, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.

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