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Board classification and managerial entrenchment: Evidence from the market for corporate control

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  • Bates, Thomas W.
  • Becher, David A.
  • Lemmon, Michael L.

Abstract

This paper considers the relation between board classification, takeover activity, and transaction outcomes for a panel of firms between 1990 and 2002. Target board classification does not change the likelihood that a firm, once targeted, is ultimately acquired. Moreover, shareholders of targets with a classified board realize bid returns that are equivalent to those of targets with a single class of directors, but receive a higher proportion of total bid surplus. Board classification does reduce the likelihood of receiving a takeover bid, however, the economic effect of bid deterrence on the value of the firm is quite small. Overall, the evidence is inconsistent with the conventional wisdom that board classification is an anti-takeover device that facilitates managerial entrenchment.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Economics.

Volume (Year): 87 (2008)
Issue (Month): 3 (March)
Pages: 656-677

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:87:y:2008:i:3:p:656-677

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576

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References

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  1. Faleye, Olubunmi, 2007. "Classified boards, firm value, and managerial entrenchment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 501-529, February.
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  5. Pound, John, 1987. "The Effects of Antitakeover Amendments on Takeover Activity: Some Direct Evidence," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 353-67, October.
  6. Randall A. Heron & Erik Lie, 2006. "On the Use of Poison Pills and Defensive Payouts by Takeover Targets," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(4), pages 1783-1808, July.
  7. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
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  12. Julie Wulf, 2004. "Do CEOs in Mergers Trade Power for Premium? Evidence from "Mergers of Equals"," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(1), pages 60-101, April.
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  14. G. William Schwert, 1999. "Hostility in Takeovers: In the Eyes of the Beholder?," NBER Working Papers 7085, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Ambrose, Brent W. & Megginson, William L., 1992. "The Role of Asset Structure, Ownership Structure, and Takeover Defenses in Determining Acquisition Likelihood," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(04), pages 575-589, December.
  16. Stulz, ReneM., 1988. "Managerial control of voting rights : Financing policies and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 25-54, January.
  17. Ronald W. Masulis & Cong Wang & Fei Xie, 2007. "Corporate Governance and Acquirer Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(4), pages 1851-1889, 08.
  18. Mary M. Bange, 2004. "Board Composition, Board Effectiveness, and the Observed Form of Takeover Bids," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(4), pages 1185-1215.
  19. Bates, Thomas W. & Lemmon, Michael L., 2003. "Breaking up is hard to do? An analysis of termination fee provisions and merger outcomes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 469-504, September.
  20. Bates, Thomas W. & Lemmon, Michael L. & Linck, James S., 2006. "Shareholder wealth effects and bid negotiation in freeze-out deals: Are minority shareholders left out in the cold?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 681-708, September.
  21. Malatesta, Paul H., 1983. "The wealth effect of merger activity and the objective functions of merging firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 155-181, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bhanot, Karan & Mansi, Sattar A. & Wald, John K., 2010. "Takeover risk and the correlation between stocks and bonds," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 381-393, June.
  2. Tarcisio da Graca & Robert Masson, 2013. "Corporate governance and abnormal returns from M&A: A structural analysis," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp032013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  3. Nana Y. Amoah, 2012. "Option grants and investor reaction to restatement-induced litigation Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between CEO option grants at the beginning of the class period (B," Review of Accounting and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 40-52, February.
  4. Ahn, Seoungpil & Shrestha, Keshab, 2013. "The differential effects of classified boards on firm value," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 3993-4013.
  5. Sokolyk, Tatyana, 2011. "The effects of antitakeover provisions on acquisition targets," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 612-627, June.
  6. Weitzel, Utz & Kling, Gerhard, 2012. "Sold below value? Why some targets accept very low and even negative takeover premiums," MPRA Paper 42832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Ng, Lilian & Wang, Qinghai & Zaiats, Nataliya, 2009. "Firm performance and mutual fund voting," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 2207-2217, December.
  8. Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger & Low, Angie & Stulz, René M., 2010. "Why do firms appoint CEOs as outside directors?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 12-32, July.
  9. Heitzman, Shane, 2011. "Equity grants to target CEOs during deal negotiations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 251-271.
  10. Fabel, Oliver & Kolmar, Martin, 2012. "Do parachutes discipline managers? An analysis of takeover battles," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 224-232.
  11. Bradley, Michael & Chen, Dong, 2011. "Corporate governance and the cost of debt: Evidence from director limited liability and indemnification provisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 83-107, February.
  12. Chi, Jianxin Daniel & Scott Lee, D., 2010. "The conditional nature of the value of corporate governance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 350-361, February.
  13. Ahern, Kenneth R., 2012. "Bargaining power and industry dependence in mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(3), pages 530-550.
  14. Chen, Dong, 2012. "Classified boards, the cost of debt, and firm performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3346-3365.
  15. Baulkaran, Vishaal, 2014. "Management entrenchment and the valuation discount of dual class firms," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 70-81.
  16. Eckbo, B. Espen, 2009. "Bidding strategies and takeover premiums: A review," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 149-178, February.
  17. Bebchuk, Lucian & Cohen, Alma & Wang, Charles C.Y., 2014. "Golden Parachutes and the Wealth of Shareholders," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 140-154.
  18. Lucian A. Bebchuk & Alma Cohen & Charles C.Y. Wang, 2011. "Staggered Boards and the Wealth of Shareholders: Evidence from Two Natural Experiments," NBER Working Papers 17127, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Becker-Blease, John R., 2011. "Governance and innovation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 947-958, September.
  20. Cohen, Alma & Wang, Charles C.Y., 2013. "How do staggered boards affect shareholder value? Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(3), pages 627-641.
  21. Bauguess, Scott & Stegemoller, Mike, 2008. "Protective governance choices and the value of acquisition activity," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 550-566, December.
  22. Kim, Yongtae & Li, Haidan & Li, Siqi, 2014. "Corporate social responsibility and stock price crash risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1-13.
  23. Daniel Ferreira & David Kershaw & Tom Kirchmaier & Edmund Schuster, . "Shareholder Empowerment and Bank Bailouts," FMG Discussion Papers dp714, Financial Markets Group.

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