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Private Label Expansion and Supermarket Milk Prices

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  • Bonanno Alessandro

    (University of Connecticut-Storrs, USA)

  • Lopez Rigoberto A.

    (University of Connecticut-Storrs, USA)

Abstract

This article investigates the impacts of private labels (PLs) on fluid milk prices and price differentials using 2,759 supermarket-level observations from 10 cities. Non-parametric results reveal that although PL milk prices decrease as PL milk shares expand, eventually the effect is to increase the prices of manufacturers’ brands as well as the price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands. Econometric results further reveal that supermarkets exert some degree of price discrimination through controlling the brands of milk sold.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by De Gruyter in its journal Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization.

Volume (Year): 3 (2005)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 1-18

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Handle: RePEc:bpj:bjafio:v:3:y:2005:i:1:n:2

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References

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  1. Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl & Sorgard, Lars, 2007. "Private labels, price rivalry, and public policy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 403-424, February.
  2. Connor, John M & Peterson, Everett B, 1992. "Market-Structure Determinants of National Brand-Private Label Price Differences of Manufactured Food Products," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 157-71, June.
  3. Connor, John M, 1994. "North America as Precursor of Changes in Western European Food-Purchasing Patterns," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 21(2), pages 155-73.
  4. Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2007. "Vertical relationships between manufacturers and retailers: inference with limited data," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt6gz1t778, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  5. G. Galizzi & L. Venturini & S. Boccaletti, 1997. "Vertical relationships and dual branding strategies in the Italian food industry," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(2), pages 185-195.
  6. Cotterill, Ronald W. & Putsis, William P., Jr. & Dhar, Ravi, 2000. "Market Share and Price Setting Behavior For Private Labels and National Brands," Research Reports 25209, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  7. Robert Barsky & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Daniel Levy, 2001. "What Can the Price Gap between Branded and Private Label Products Tell Us about Markups?," NBER Working Papers 8426, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Bontems, Philippe & Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette & Requillart, Vincent, 1999. "Strategic Effects of Private Labels," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 147-65, June.
  9. Ronald Cotterill & William Putsis, 2000. "Market Share and Price Setting Behavior for Private Labels and National Brands," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 17-39, August.
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  11. Ward, Michael B. & Shimshack, Jay P. & Perloff, Jeffrey M. & Harris, J. Michael, 2002. "Effects of the private-label invasion in food industries," MPRA Paper 22186, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. William P. Putsis Jr. & Ronald W. Cotterill, 1999. "Share, price and category expenditure-geographic market effects and private labels," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 175-187.
  13. Bontemps Christophe & Orozco Valerie & Réquillart Vincent & Trevisiol Audrey, 2005. "Price Effects of Private Label Development," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-18, February.
  14. Bergès-Sennou Fabian & Bontems Philippe & Réquillart Vincent, 2004. "Economics of Private Labels: A Survey of Literature," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-25, February.
  15. Mills, David E, 1995. "Why Retailers Sell Private Labels," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 509-28, Fall.
  16. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A. & Cotterill, Ronald W., 2003. "Retail Oligopoly Power And Fluid Milk Prices In Boston," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22107, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  17. Vickers, John & Waterson, Michael, 1991. "Vertical Relationships: An Introduction," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(5), pages 445-50, September.
  18. Parker, Philip & Kim, Namwoon, 1997. "National brands versus private labels: An empirical study of competition, advertising and collusion," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 220-235, June.
  19. Katz, Michael L., 1989. "Vertical contractual relations," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 655-721 Elsevier.
  20. Shepard, Andrea, 1991. "Price Discrimination and Retail Configuration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(1), pages 30-53, February.
  21. Adonis Yatchew, 1998. "Nonparametric Regression Techniques in Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(2), pages 669-721, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Tian, Li, 2006. "The Strategic Effect of Private Label in a Vertical Bargaining Model," Research Reports 170112, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  2. Zhuang, Yan & Dimitri, Carolyn & Jaenicke, Edward C., 2010. "Price Reactions And Organic Price Premiums For Private Label And Branded Milk," 115th Joint EAAE/AAEA Seminar, September 15-17, 2010, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany 116388, European Association of Agricultural Economists & Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  3. repec:ags:uconnr:149205 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Cotterill, Ronald W., 2006. "Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 50(1), March.
  5. Anania, Giovanni & Nisticò, Rosanna, 2014. "Price dispersion and seller heterogeneity in retail food markets," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 190-201.
  6. Rabinowitz, Adam N. & Liu, Yizao, 2014. "The Impact of Regulatory Change on Retail Pricing: The New York State Milk Price Gouging Law," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 43(1), April.
  7. Zhuang, Yan & Dimitri, Carolyn & Jaenicke, Edward C., 2009. "Consumer Choice of Private Label or National Brand: The case of organic and non-organic milk," 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, 2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 49207, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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