Industrial Districts, Core Cities And Ownership Strategy Of Multinational Firms Investing In Italy
This paper assesses the influence of spatial heterogeneity on the choice of entry modes by multinational enterprises (MNEs). We claim that the location of the target firm influences the choice of partial ownership, i.e., an MNE?s choice to maintain a local partner. MNEs normally execute partial acquisitions to reduce their liability of foreignness and to preserve their target?s inherent competencies, particularly in highly innovative and internationally competitive sectors. However, this phenomenon occurs less frequently if target firms are located in areas that are characterized by relevant externalities, such as core cities and industrial districts. In particular, core cities allow foreign MNEs to access not only a variety of information and knowledge, but also other externalities that are associated with international interconnectedness; industrial districts provide MNEs with easier access to industry-specific agglomeration economies (a local pool of skilled labor, local input-output linkages, and local knowledge spillovers). Thus, both types of locations reduce an MNE?s need to maintain a local partner, although these locations provide substitutes for different aspects of the target firm?s competences. Empirical evidence from foreign acquisitions of local manufacturing firms that occurred in Italy during the 2001-2010 period confirms these expectations.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria|
Web page: http://www.ersa.org
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ron Boschma & Koen Frenken, 2011.
"The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography,"
Journal of Economic Geography,
Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 295-307, March.
- Ron Boschma & KOen Frenken, 2010. "The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography," Working Papers 10-10, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies, revised Nov 2010.
- Ron Boschma & Koen Frenken, 2011. "The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1101, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Jan 2011.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1998. "Power in a Theory of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(2), pages 387-432.
- Nielsen, Bo Bernhard & Nielsen, Sabina, 2011. "The role of top management team international orientation in international strategic decision-making: The choice of foreign entry mode," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 185-193, April.
- Williamson, Oliver E, 1983. "Credible Commitments: Using Hostages to Support Exchange," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 519-40, September.
- Juan Alcácer & Wilbur Chung, 2007. "Location Strategies and Knowledge Spillovers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(5), pages 760-776, May.
- Sergio Mariotti & Lucia Piscitello & Stefano Elia, 2010. "Spatial agglomeration of multinational enterprises: the role of information externalities and knowledge spillovers," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 519-538, July.
- Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1993. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(4), pages 625-645, December.
- Cainarca, Gian Carlo & Colombo, Massimo G. & Mariotti, Sergio, 1992. "Agreements between firms and the technological life cycle model: Evidence from information technologies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 45-62, February.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991.
"Growth in Cities,"
NBER Working Papers
3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dominic Power & Mats Lundmark, 2004. "Working through Knowledge Pools: Labour Market Dynamics, the Transference of Knowledge and Ideas, and Industrial Clusters," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 41(5-6), pages 1025-1044, May.
- David K Tse & Yigang Pan & Kevin Y Au, 1997. "How MNCs Choose Entry Modes and Form Alliances: The China Experience," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(4), pages 779-805, December.
- Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998.
"Power in a Theory of the Firm,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1777, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1997. "Power in a Theory of the Firm," NBER Working Papers 6274, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, . "Power in a Theory of the Firm," CRSP working papers 335, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Giulio Cainelli & Donato Iacobucci, 2012.
"Agglomeration, Related Variety, and Vertical Integration,"
Clark University, vol. 88(3), pages 255-277, 07.
- Giulio Cainelli & Donato Iacobucci, 2011. "Agglomeration, related variety and vertical integration," Openloc Working Papers 1104, Public policies and local development.
- Giulio Cainelli & Donato Iacobucci, 2010. "Agglomeration, related variety and vertical integration," Working Papers 1005, c.MET-05 - Centro Interuniversitario di Economia Applicata alle Politiche per L'industria, lo Sviluppo locale e l'Internazionalizzazione.
- Sergio Mariotti & Lucia Piscitello, 1995. "Information Costs and Location of FDIs within the Host Country: Empirical Evidence from Italy," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(4), pages 815-841, December.
- Lipsey, Robert & Sjöholm, Fredrik, 2004. "Host Country Impacts Of Inward Fdi: Why Such Different Answers?," EIJS Working Paper Series 192, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.
- Michaela Trippl & Franz Tödtling & Lukas Lengauer, 2009. "Knowledge Sourcing Beyond Buzz and Pipelines: Evidence from the Vienna Software Sector," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(4), pages 443-462, October.
- Cassiman, Bruno & Colombo, Massimo G. & Garrone, Paola & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2005. "The impact of M&A on the R&D process: An empirical analysis of the role of technological- and market-relatedness," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 195-220, March.
- Chen, Shih-Fen S. & Hennart, Jean-Francois, 2004. "A hostage theory of joint ventures: why do Japanese investors choose partial over full acquisitions to enter the United States?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(10), pages 1126-1134, October.
- Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2011. "'New' new economic geography: firm heterogeneity and agglomeration economies," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 231-240, March.
- Klepper, Steven, 1997. "Industry Life Cycles," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 145-81.
- Antony Potter & H. Doug Watts, 2011. "Evolutionary agglomeration theory: increasing returns, diminishing returns, and the industry life cycle," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(3), pages 417-455, May.
- Paul Bishop & Peter Gripaios, 2010. "Spatial Externalities, Relatedness and Sector Employment Growth in Great Britain," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(4), pages 443-454.
- Lucia Piscitello, 2004. "Corporate diversification, coherence and economic performance," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(5), pages 757-787, October.
- Murali DR Chari & Kiyoung Chang, 2009. "Determinants of the share of equity sought in cross-border acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(8), pages 1277-1297, October.
- Frank Neffke & Martin Henning & Ron Boschma & Karl-Johan Lundquist & Lars-Olof Olander, 2011. "The Dynamics of Agglomeration Externalities along the Life Cycle of Industries," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(1), pages 49-65.
- Biggiero, Lucio, 2002. " The Location of Multinationals in Industrial Districts: Knowledge Transfer in Biomedicals," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 111-22, January.
- Whited, Toni M., 2006. "External finance constraints and the intertemporal pattern of intermittent investment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 467-502, September.
- Louis T. Wells, 1983. "Third World Multinationals: The Rise of Foreign Investments from Developing Countries," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026273169x, June.
- Louise Crewe, 1996. "Material Culture: Embedded Firms, Organizational Networks and the Local Economic Development of a Fashion Quarter," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 257-272.
- Bennett Harrison, 2007. "Industrial Districts: Old Wine in New Bottles? (Volume 26, Number 5, 1992)," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(sup1), pages S107-S121.
- Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2009. "Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: an anatomy of localized knowledge flows," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 439-468, July.
- Vojislav Maksimovic & Gordon Phillips, 2008. "The Industry Life Cycle, Acquisitions and Investment: Does Firm Organization Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(2), pages 673-708, 04.
- Balakrishnan, Srinivasan & Koza, Mitchell P., 1993. "Information asymmetry, adverse selection and joint-ventures : Theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 99-117, January.
- Ron Boschma, 2005. "Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 61-74.
- Teece, David J., 1996. "Firm organization, industrial structure, and technological innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 193-224, November.
- Koen Frenken & Frank Van Oort & Thijs Verburg, 2007. "Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Regional Economic Growth," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 685-697.
- Ron Boschma & Simona Iammarino, 2009. "Related Variety, Trade Linkages, and Regional Growth in Italy," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(3), pages 289-311, 07.
- Melo, Patricia C. & Graham, Daniel J. & Noland, Robert B., 2009. "A meta-analysis of estimates of urban agglomeration economies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 332-342, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa13p27. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.