IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/recgxx/v90y2014i2p187-211.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Local Externalities and Ownership Choices in Foreign Acquisitions by Multinational Enterprises

Author

Listed:
  • Sergio Mariotti
  • Lucia Piscitello
  • Stefano Elia

Abstract

This article assesses the influence of spatial heterogeneity on the entry mode by multinational enterprises (MNEs) in foreign markets. Focusing on acquisitions, we claim that the location of the target firm influences the MNE’s ownership choice. MNEs normally execute partial acquisitions to reduce their liability of foreignness and to preserve their target’s inherent competencies, particularly in highly innovative and internationally competitive sectors. However, this phenomenon occurs less frequently if target firms are located in areas that are characterized by relevant externalities, such as core cities and industrial districts. In particular, core cities allow foreign MNEs to access a variety of information and knowledge as well as other externalities that are associated with international interconnectedness; industrial districts provide MNEs with easier access to industry-specific agglomeration economies (a local pool of skilled labor, local input-output linkages, and local knowledge spillovers). These locations provide substitutes for different aspects of the target firm’s competences, thus reducing an MNE’s need to maintain a local partner. Empirical evidence from foreign acquisitions of local manufacturing firms that occurred in Italy during the 2001–10 period confirms these expectations.

Suggested Citation

  • Sergio Mariotti & Lucia Piscitello & Stefano Elia, 2014. "Local Externalities and Ownership Choices in Foreign Acquisitions by Multinational Enterprises," Economic Geography, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 90(2), pages 187-211, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:recgxx:v:90:y:2014:i:2:p:187-211
    DOI: 10.1111/ecge.12039
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/ecge.12039
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/ecge.12039?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Duranton, Gilles, 2006. "Labour pooling, labour poaching, and spatial clustering," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 1-28, January.
    2. Ron Boschma & Koen Frenken, 2011. "The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 295-307, March.
    3. Vojislav Maksimovic & Gordon Phillips, 2008. "The Industry Life Cycle, Acquisitions and Investment: Does Firm Organization Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(2), pages 673-708, April.
    4. Simona Iammarino & Philip McCann, 2013. "Multinationals and Economic Geography," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15181.
    5. Philip McCann & Zoltán J. Ács, 2015. "Globalization: Countries, Cities and Multinationals," Chapters, in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 19, pages 371-386, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. David K Tse & Yigang Pan & Kevin Y Au, 1997. "How MNCs Choose Entry Modes and Form Alliances: The China Experience," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 28(4), pages 779-805, December.
    7. Glaeser, Edward L & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1126-1152, December.
      • Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    8. Yigang Pan & David K Tse, 2000. "The Hierarchical Model of Market Entry Modes," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 31(4), pages 535-554, December.
    9. Anoop Madhok, 1997. "Cost, Value And Foreign Market Entry Mode: The Transaction And The Firm," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 39-61, January.
    10. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1998. "Power in a Theory of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(2), pages 387-432.
    11. Sergio Mariotti & Lucia Piscitello, 1995. "Information Costs and Location of FDIs within the Host Country: Empirical Evidence from Italy," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 26(4), pages 815-841, December.
    12. Klepper, Steven, 1997. "Industry Life Cycles," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 145-181.
    13. Michaela Trippl & Franz Tödtling & Lukas Lengauer, 2009. "Knowledge Sourcing Beyond Buzz and Pipelines: Evidence from the Vienna Software Sector," Economic Geography, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 85(4), pages 443-462, October.
    14. Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano, 2011. "'New' new economic geography: firm heterogeneity and agglomeration economies," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 231-240, March.
    15. Luca De Benedictis, 2005. "Three Decades of Italian Comparative Advantages," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(11), pages 1679-1709, November.
    16. Biggiero, Lucio, 2002. "The Location of Multinationals in Industrial Districts: Knowledge Transfer in Biomedicals," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 111-122, January.
    17. Mary E. Burfisher & Sherman Robinson & Karen Thierfelder, 2002. "The Global Impacts of Farm Policy Reforms in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Countries," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 774-781.
    18. Louis T. Wells, 1983. "Third World Multinationals: The Rise of Foreign Investments from Developing Countries," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026273169x, February.
    19. Whited, Toni M., 2006. "External finance constraints and the intertemporal pattern of intermittent investment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 467-502, September.
    20. Antony Potter & H. Doug Watts, 2011. "Evolutionary agglomeration theory: increasing returns, diminishing returns, and the industry life cycle," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(3), pages 417-455, May.
    21. Cainarca, Gian Carlo & Colombo, Massimo G. & Mariotti, Sergio, 1992. "Agreements between firms and the technological life cycle model: Evidence from information technologies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 45-62, February.
    22. Matthew P. Drennan, 1992. "Gateway Cities: The Metropolitan Sources of US Producer Service Exports," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 29(2), pages 217-235, April.
    23. Balakrishnan, Srinivasan & Koza, Mitchell P., 1993. "Information asymmetry, adverse selection and joint-ventures : Theory and evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 99-117, January.
    24. Dominic Power & Mats Lundmark, 2004. "Working through Knowledge Pools: Labour Market Dynamics, the Transference of Knowledge and Ideas, and Industrial Clusters," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 41(5-6), pages 1025-1044, May.
    25. Anthony Goerzen & Christian Geisler Asmussen & Bo Bernhard Nielsen, 2013. "Global cities and multinational enterprise location strategy," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 44(5), pages 427-450, June.
    26. Louise Crewe, 1996. "Material Culture: Embedded Firms, Organizational Networks and the Local Economic Development of a Fashion Quarter," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 257-272.
    27. Sergio Mariotti & Lucia Piscitello & Stefano Elia, 2010. "Spatial agglomeration of multinational enterprises: the role of information externalities and knowledge spillovers," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 519-538, July.
    28. Rikard H. Eriksson, 2011. "Localized Spillovers and Knowledge Flows: How Does Proximity Influence the Performance of Plants?," Economic Geography, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 87(2), pages 127-152, April.
    29. Sjoerd Beugelsdijk & Ram Mudambi, 2013. "MNEs as border-crossing multi-location enterprises: The role of discontinuities in geographic space," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 44(5), pages 413-426, June.
    30. Giacomo Becattini & Marco Bellandi & Lisa De Propis (ed.), 2009. "A Handbook of Industrial Districts," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12736.
    31. Melo, Patricia C. & Graham, Daniel J. & Noland, Robert B., 2009. "A meta-analysis of estimates of urban agglomeration economies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 332-342, May.
    32. Nielsen, Bo Bernhard & Nielsen, Sabina, 2011. "The role of top management team international orientation in international strategic decision-making: The choice of foreign entry mode," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 185-193, April.
    33. Chen, Shih-Fen S. & Hennart, Jean-Francois, 2004. "A hostage theory of joint ventures: why do Japanese investors choose partial over full acquisitions to enter the United States?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(10), pages 1126-1134, October.
    34. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2009. "Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: an anatomy of localized knowledge flows," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 439-468, July.
    35. Frank Neffke & Martin Henning & Ron Boschma & Karl-Johan Lundquist & Lars-Olof Olander, 2011. "The Dynamics of Agglomeration Externalities along the Life Cycle of Industries," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(1), pages 49-65.
    36. Mark Lorenzen, 2007. "Social Capital and Localised Learning: Proximity and Place in Technological and Institutional Dynamics," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 44(4), pages 799-817, April.
    37. Rikard H. Eriksson, 2011. "Localized Spillovers and Knowledge Flows: How Does Proximity Influence the Performance of Plants?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 87(2), pages 127-152, April.
    38. Murali DR Chari & Kiyoung Chang, 2009. "Determinants of the share of equity sought in cross-border acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(8), pages 1277-1297, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Andrea Ascani & Riccardo Crescenzi & Simona Iammarino, 2015. "Economic Institutions and the Location Strategies of European Multinationals in their Geographical Neighbourhood," LEQS – LSE 'Europe in Question' Discussion Paper Series 97, European Institute, LSE.
    2. Ilaria Mariotti & Mariachiara Barzotto & Giancarlo Corò & Stefano Saloriani, 2020. "Industrial districts, urban areas or both? The location behaviour of foreign and domestic firms in an Italian manufacturing region," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 64(3), pages 523-546, June.
    3. Hendriks, Guus, 2020. "How the spatial dispersion and size of country networks shape the geographic distance that firms add during international expansion," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(6).
    4. Jiawei Wu & Yehua Dennis Wei & Wen Chen, 2020. "Spatial proximity, localized assets, and the changing geography of domestic mergers and acquisitions in transitional China," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 954-976, September.
    5. Andrea Ascani & Riccardo Crescenzi & Simona Iammarino, 2016. "Economic Institutions and the Location Strategies of European Multinationals in their Geographic Neighborhood," Economic Geography, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 92(4), pages 401-429, October.
    6. Kashif Ahmed & Ralf Bebenroth & Jean-Francois Hennart, 2020. "Formal Institutional Uncertainty and Equity Sought on Foreign Market Entry: Does Industry Matter?," Discussion Paper Series DP2020-03, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
    7. Stefano Elia & Rajneesh Narula & Silvia Massini, 2015. "Disentangling the Role of Modularity and Bandwidth in Entry Mode Choice: The Case of Business Services Offshoring," John H Dunning Centre for International Business Discussion Papers jhd-dp2015-06, Henley Business School, University of Reading.
    8. Xie, En & Reddy, K.S. & Liang, Jie, 2017. "Country-specific determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A comprehensive review and future research directions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 127-183.
    9. Amendolagine, Vito & Crescenzi, Riccardo & Rabellotti, Roberta, 2022. "The geography of acquisitions and greenfield investments: firm heterogeneity and regional institutional conditions," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 115597, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Andrea Boellis & Sergio Mariotti & Alessandro Minichilli & Lucia Piscitello, 2016. "Family involvement and firms’ establishment mode choice in foreign markets," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 47(8), pages 929-950, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Stefano Elia & Lucia Piscitello & Sergio Mariotti, 2013. "Industrial Districts, Core Cities And Ownership Strategy Of Multinational Firms Investing In Italy," ERSA conference papers ersa13p27, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Ron Boschma & Rikard H. Eriksson & Urban Lindgren, 2014. "Labour Market Externalities and Regional Growth in Sweden: The Importance of Labour Mobility between Skill-Related Industries," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(10), pages 1669-1690, October.
    3. Matthias Firgo & Peter Mayerhofer, 2015. "Wissens-Spillovers und regionale Entwicklung - welche strukturpolitische Ausrichtung optimiert des Wachstum?," Working Paper Reihe der AK Wien - Materialien zu Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 144, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik.
    4. Ron Boschma & Riccardo Cappelli & Anet Weterings, 2017. "Labour mobility, skill-relatedness and plant survival over the industry life cycle: Evidence from new Dutch plants," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1731, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Dec 2017.
    5. Argentino Pessoa, 2014. "Agglomeration and regional growth policy: externalities versus comparative advantages," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 53(1), pages 1-27, August.
    6. Markus Grillitsch & Magnus Nilsson, 2019. "Knowledge externalities and firm heterogeneity: Effects on high and low growth firms," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(1), pages 93-114, February.
    7. Martin Henning & Maureen McKelvey, 2020. "Knowledge, entrepreneurship and regional transformation: contributing to the Schumpeterian and evolutionary perspective on the relationships between them," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 54(2), pages 495-501, February.
    8. Matthias Firgo & Peter Mayerhofer, 2015. "Wissensintensive Unternehmensdienste, Wissens-Spillovers und regionales Wachstum. Teilprojekt 1: Wissens-Spillovers und regionale Entwicklung – Welche strukturpolitische Ausrichtung optimiert das Wach," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 58342, January.
    9. Sverre J. Herstad, 2018. "Beyond ‘related variety’: how inflows of skills shape innovativeness in different industries," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 396-420, February.
    10. Matthias Duschl & Tobias Scholl & Thomas Brenner & Dennis Luxen & Falk Raschke, 2015. "Industry-Specific Firm Growth and Agglomeration," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(11), pages 1822-1839, November.
    11. Markus Grillitsch & Magnus Nilsson, 2017. "Firm performance in the periphery: on the relation between firm-internal knowledge and local knowledge spillovers," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(8), pages 1219-1231, August.
    12. Yifei Wang & Andrea Ascani & Carolina Castaldi, 2021. "Location choices of Chinese greenfield investments across EU regions: The role of industry and country-of-origin agglomerations," Discussion Paper series in Regional Science & Economic Geography 2021-10, Gran Sasso Science Institute, Social Sciences, revised Jul 2021.
    13. Duschl, Matthias & Schimke, Antje & Brenner, Thomas & Luxen, Dennis, 2011. "Firm growth and the spatial impact of geolocated external factors: Empirical evidence for German manufacturing firms," Working Paper Series in Economics 36, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Department of Economics and Management.
    14. Nicola Cortinovis & Zhiling Wang & Hengky Kurniawan, 2021. "Industrial Relatedness in MNE Spillovers over Geographical Space," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2111, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Mar 2021.
    15. Favaro, Donata & Ninka, Eniel & Turvani, Margherita, 2012. "Productivity in innovation: the role of inventor connections and mobility," MPRA Paper 38950, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Bram Timmermans & Ron Boschma, 2014. "The effect of intra- and inter-regional labour mobility on plant performance in Denmark: the significance of related labour inflows," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(2), pages 289-311.
    17. Martijn J. Smit, 2017. "Innovation through new blood," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 58(3), pages 543-578, May.
    18. Thomas J. Hannigan & Alessandra Perri & Vittoria Giada Scalera, 2016. "The Dispersed Multinational: Does Connectedness Across Spatial Dimensions Lead to Broader Technological Search?," Working Papers 11, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
    19. Nils Grashof & Dirk Fornahl, 2020. "To be or not to be located in a cluster? A descriptive meta-analysis of the firm-specific cluster effect," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2020-01, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    20. Nicola Cortinovis & Frank van Oort, 2017. "Between spilling over and boiling down: network-mediated spillovers, absorptive capacity and productivity in European regions," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 17-118/VI, Tinbergen Institute.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:recgxx:v:90:y:2014:i:2:p:187-211. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/recg .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Chris Longhurst (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/recg .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.