IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

A distribution dynamics approach to regional income convergence in reunified Germany

  • Falko Juessen


In this paper, we present an empirical study of per capita income convergence across German labour market regions during 1992 to 2002 using nonparametric techniques. We find clear evidence for convergence during the period we study, i.e. that regions that were poor in 1992 have increased their relative incomes in 2002. A special feature of our approach is that it allows to make predictions about the long-run distribution of regional incomes. We predict a persistent inequality among German regions. This result is especially important with respect to the massive regional policy expenditures taken in the last decade. According to our analysis it is unlikely that German policy will prevent polarization in the regional income distribution even if transers and subsidies will be continued in a comparable magnitude. Consequently, we argue that regional policy programs in Germany do not achieve their aim, and therefore need to be reviewed.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa05p411.

in new window

Date of creation: Aug 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa05p411
Contact details of provider: Postal: Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria
Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Quah, Danny, 2001. "Searching for prosperity a comment," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 305-319, December.
  2. Wolfgang Keller, 1997. "From Socialist Showcase to Mezzogiorno? Lessons on the Role of Technical Change from East Germany's Post-World War II Growth Performance," Development and Comp Systems 9707002, EconWPA.
  3. Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra, 2001. "Twin Peaks: Convergence Empirics of Economic Growth across Indian States," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  4. Barro, Robert J & Mankiw, N Gregory & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1995. "Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(1), pages 103-15, March.
  5. Durlauf, Steven N. & Johnson, Paul A. & Temple, Jonathan R.W., 2005. "Growth Econometrics," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 555-677 Elsevier.
  6. Funke, Michael & Strulik, Holger, 1999. "Regional growth in West Germany: convergence or divergence?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 489-502, December.
  7. Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Katja Gerling, 2000. "Subsidization and Structural Change in Eastern German Transition: Did Economic Policy Meet Its Objectives?," Kiel Working Papers 998, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  9. Bianchi, Marco, 1997. "Testing for Convergence: Evidence from Non-parametric Multimodality Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 393-409, July-Aug..
  10. Michael Funke & Holge Strulik, 1999. "Growth and Convergence in a Two-Region Model of Unified Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 206, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Johnson, Paul A., 2000. "A nonparametric analysis of income convergence across the US states," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 219-223, November.
  12. Frank Siebern, 2000. "Growth and Convergence in a Two-Region Model of Unified Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 1(3), pages 363-384, 08.
  13. Sung Jin Kang, 2004. "The evolution of regional income distribution in Japan," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(3), pages 253-259.
  14. Reinhold Kosfeld & Jorgen Lauridsen, 2004. "Dynamic spatial modelling of regional convergence processes," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 705-722, December.
  15. Andrade, Eduardo & Laurini, Marcio & Madalozzo, Regina & Valls Pereira, Pedro L., 2004. "Convergence clubs among Brazilian municipalities," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 179-184, May.
  16. Razin, Assaf & Yuen, Chi-Wa, 1997. "Income convergence within an economic union: the role of factor mobility and coordination," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 225-245, November.
  17. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-43, December.
  18. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
  19. Niebuhr, Annekatrin, 2000. "Convergence and the effects of spatial interaction," HWWA Discussion Papers 110, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  20. Charles I. Jones, . "Convergence Revisited," Working Papers 96006, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  21. Hughes Hallett, A J & Ma, Yue, 1993. "East Germany, West Germany, and Their Mezzogiorno Problem: A Parable for European Economic Integration," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(417), pages 416-28, March.
  22. Johnson, Paul A., 2005. "A continuous state space approach to "Convergence by Parts"," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 317-321, March.
  23. Bulli, Sandra, 2001. "Distribution Dynamics and Cross-Country Convergence: A New Approach," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(2), pages 226-43, May.
  24. Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
  25. Philippe Van Kerm, 2003. "Adaptive kernel density estimation," United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003 15, Stata Users Group.
  26. Adolfo Maza & Jose Villaverde, 2004. "Regional disparities in the EU: mobility and polarization," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(8), pages 517-522.
  27. Burda, Michael C & Funke, Michael, 1993. "Eastern Germany: Can't We Be More Optimistic?," CEPR Discussion Papers 863, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa05p411. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.