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An "Algorithmic Links with Probabilities" Concordance for Trademarks For Disaggregated Analysis of Trademark and Economic Data

Author

Listed:
  • Travis J. Lybbert

    (Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Davis)

  • Nikolas J. Zolas

    (Center for Economic Studies, United States Census Bureau)

  • Prantik Bhattacharyya

    (Software Engineer, Klout)

Abstract

Trademarks (TMs) shape the competitive landscape of markets for goods and services in all countries through branding and conveying information and quality inherent in products. Yet, researchers are largely unable to conduct rigorous empirical analysis of TMs in the modern economy because TM data and economic activity data are organized differently and cannot be analyzed jointly at the industry or sectoral level. We propose an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ (ALP) approach to match TM data to economic data and enable these data to speak to each other. Specifically, we construct a NICE Class Level concordance that maps TM data into trade and industry categories forward and backward. This concordance allows researchers to analyze differences in TM usage across both economic and TM sectors. In this paper, we apply this ALP concordance for TMs to characterize patterns in TM applications across countries, industries, income levels and more. We also use the concordance to investigate some of the key determinants of international technology transfer by comparing bilateral TM applications and bilateral patent applications. We conclude with a discussion of possible extensions of this work, including deeper indicator-level concordances and further analyses that are possible once TM data are linked with economic activity data.

Suggested Citation

  • Travis J. Lybbert & Nikolas J. Zolas & Prantik Bhattacharyya, 2014. "An "Algorithmic Links with Probabilities" Concordance for Trademarks For Disaggregated Analysis of Trademark and Economic Data," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 14, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division.
  • Handle: RePEc:wip:wpaper:14
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mendonca, Sandro & Pereira, Tiago Santos & Godinho, Manuel Mira, 2004. "Trademarks as an indicator of innovation and industrial change," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1385-1404, November.
    2. Christian Broda & David E. Weinstein, 2006. "Globalization and the Gains From Variety," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 121(2), pages 541-585.
    3. Eugenia Baroncelli & Carsten Fink & Beata Smarzynska Javorcik, 2005. "The Global Distribution of Trademarks: Some Stylised Facts," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(6), pages 765-782, June.
    4. Andrea Mangani, 2007. "Measuring Variety and Quality of Products with Trademarks," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 613-631.
    5. Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
    6. Elizabeth Webster & Paul H. Jensen, 2004. "Patterns of Trademarking Activity in Australia," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2004n02, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    7. Malmberg, Claes, 2005. "Trademarks Statistics as Innovation Indicator? - A Micro Study," Papers in Innovation Studies 2005/17, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    8. Eugenia Baroncelli & Ekaterina Krivonos & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2007. "Trademark Protection or Protectionism?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 126-145, February.
    9. Rauch, James E., 1999. "Networks versus markets in international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 7-35, June.
    10. Giovanni B. Ramello, 2006. "What'S In A Sign ? Trademark Law And Economic Theory," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 547-565, September.
    11. Scherer, F. M., 1983. "The propensity to patent," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-128, March.
    12. Rujas, Javier, 1999. "Trade marks: complementary to patents," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 35-39, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. M. Grazzi & C. Piccardo & C. Vergari, 2017. "Building a firm level dataset for the analysis of industrial dynamics and demography," Working Papers wp2003, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.

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    Keywords

    Trademarks; Economics; Concordance; International trade; ISIC; SITC;

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