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An ‘Algorithmic Links With Probabilities’ Concordance For Trademarks: For Disaggregated Analysis Of Trademark & Economic Data

  • Nikolas Zolas
  • Travis J. Lybbert
  • Prantik Bhattacharyya

Trademarks (TMs) shape the competitive landscape of markets for goods and services in all countries through branding and conveying information and quality inherent in products. Yet, researchers are largely unable to conduct rigorous empirical analysis of TMs in the modern economy because TM data and economic activity data are organized differently and cannot be analyzed jointly at the industry or sectoral level. We propose an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities’ (ALP) approach to match TM data to economic data and enable these data to speak to each other. Specifically, we construct a NICE Class Level concordance that maps TM data into trade and industry categories forward and backward. This concordance allows researchers to analyze differences in TM usage across both economic and TM sectors. In this paper, we apply this ALP concordance for TMs to characterize patterns in TM applications across countries, industries, income levels and more. We also use the concordance to investigate some of the key determinants of international technology transfer by comparing bilateral TM applications and bilateral patent applications. We conclude with a discussion of possible extensions of this work, including deeper indicator-level concordances and further analyses that are possible once TM data are linked with economic activity data.

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Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 13-49.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:13-49
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  1. Baroncelli, Eugenia & Kink, Carsten & Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata, 2004. "The global distribution of trademarks - some stylized facts," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3270, The World Bank.
  2. Christian Broda & David Weinstein, 2004. "Globalization and the gains from variety," Staff Reports 180, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  3. Eugenia Baroncelli & Ekaterina Krivonos & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2007. "Trademark Protection or Protectionism?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 126-145, 02.
  4. James E. Rauch, 1996. "Networks versus Markets in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 5617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Park, Walter G., 2008. "International patent protection: 1960-2005," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 761-766, May.
  6. Mendonca, Sandro & Pereira, Tiago Santos & Godinho, Manuel Mira, 2004. "Trademarks as an indicator of innovation and industrial change," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1385-1404, November.
  7. Landes, William M & Posner, Richard A, 1987. "Trademark Law: An Economic Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(2), pages 265-309, October.
  8. Andrea Mangani, 2007. "Measuring Variety and Quality of Products with Trademarks," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 613-631.
  9. Rujas, Javier, 1999. "Trade marks: complementary to patents," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 35-39, March.
  10. Scherer, F. M., 1983. "The propensity to patent," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-128, March.
  11. Elizabeth Webster & Paul H. Jensen, 2004. "Patterns of Trademarking Activity in Australia," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2004n02, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  12. Malmberg, Claes, 2005. "Trademarks Statistics as Innovation Indicator? - A Micro Study," Papers in Innovation Studies 2005/17, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  13. Giovanni B. Ramello, 2006. "What'S In A Sign ? Trademark Law And Economic Theory," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 547-565, 09.
  14. Yang, Chih-Hai & Kuo, Nai-Fong, 2008. "Trade-related influences, foreign intellectual property rights and outbound international patenting," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 446-459, April.
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