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Endogenous Bank Mergers and Their Impact on Banking Performance

  • Peter Egger

    (WIFO)

  • Franz R. Hahn

    (WIFO)

This paper examines the effect of mergers on the performance of banks. We use a unique and exhaustive panel data set of mergers of Austrian banks covering the period from 1996 to 2002. A probit selection equation is formulated to explain the adoption of a merger strategy. We use various matching techniques to estimate the treatment effects of bank mergers on the banks' performance. The analysis provides evidence in favour of the view that there are longer lasting positive effects on bank performance, especially, in terms of improved cost efficiency. The findings also suggest that pre-merger effects are likely to occur in terms of higher cost efficiency immediately before the establishment of the merger. Finally, smaller banks involved in merger activities are more likely to enjoy cost-efficiency gains earlier than larger banks.

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Paper provided by WIFO in its series WIFO Working Papers with number 271.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: 28 Mar 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wfo:wpaper:y:2006:i:271
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  1. Pierre-Guillaume Meon & Laurent Weill, 2005. "Can mergers in Europe help banks hedge against macroeconomic risk?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(5), pages 315-326.
  2. Resti, Andrea, 1998. "Regulation Can Foster Mergers, Can Mergers Foster Efficiency? The Italian Case," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 157-169, March.
  3. Vennet, Rudi Vander, 1996. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on the efficiency and profitability of EC credit institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1531-1558, November.
  4. Malcolm Baker & Richard S. Ruback & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2004. "Behavioral Corporate Finance: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 10863, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Allen N. Berger & Loretta J. Mester, 2002. "Explaining the dramatic changes in performance of U.S. banks: technological change, deregulation, and dynamic changes in competition," Working Papers 01-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  6. Heckman, James J, 1978. "Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(4), pages 931-59, July.
  7. Laetitia Lepetit & Stephanie Patry & Philippe Rous, 2004. "Diversification versus specialization: an event study of M&As in the European banking industry," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(9), pages 663-669.
  8. repec:dgr:uvatin:2001088 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. Focarelli, Dario & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2002. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 1047-66, November.
  10. repec:dgr:uvatin:20010088 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Guido W. Imbens, 2004. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 4-29, February.
  12. Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1996. "The Effects of Megamergers on Efficiency and Prices: Evidence from a Bank Profit Function," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-03, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  13. Pilloff, Steven J, 1996. "Performance Changes and Shareholder Wealth Creation Associated with Mergers of Publicly Traded Banking Institutions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 294-310, August.
  14. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Megamergers in banking and the use of cost efficiency as an antitrust defense," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 203, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  15. Said Elfakhani & Rita Ghantous & Imad Baalbaki, 2003. "Mega-mergers in the US banking industry," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(8), pages 609-622.
  16. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung & Gregory F. Udell, 2000. "Efficiency barriers to the consolidation of the European financial services industry," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-37, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  17. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
  18. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
  19. Akhigbe, Aigbe & McNulty, James E., 2003. "The profit efficiency of small US commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 307-325, February.
  20. Cybo-Ottone, Alberto & Murgia, Maurizio, 2000. "Mergers and shareholder wealth in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 831-859, June.
  21. Ahmad Ismail & Ian Davidson, 2005. "Further analysis of mergers and shareholder wealth effects in European banking," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 13-30.
  22. Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2002. "Cost and Profit Efficiency of Financial Conglomerates and Universal Banks in Europe," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 254-82, February.
  23. Altunbas, Yener & Molyneux, Philip, 1996. "Cost economies in EU banking systems," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 217-230, August.
  24. Avkiran, Necmi Kemal, 1999. "The evidence on efficiency gains: The role of mergers and the benefits to the public," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 991-1013, July.
  25. Franz Hahn, 2007. "Domestic mergers in the Austrian banking sector: a performance analysis," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 185-196.
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